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The War on Terrorism Remains Our Primary Focus


The War on Terrorism Remains Our Primary Focus


Defense Subcommittee Hearing: Statement of General Richard Myers. United States Senate Committee on Appropriations, Washington D.C., March 5, 2003.


It is an honor to report to Congress on the state of the US Armed Forces.


Today, our Nation’s Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines and Coastguardsmen operate in an environment characterized by opportunity and danger. In the wake of September 11th, US Forces are now deployed to an unprecedented number of locations. Our forces also operate with a wider array of coalition partners to accomplish more diverse missions. These operations are required, as the world remains a dangerous place. In recent months, terrorists have successfully conducted numerous attacks – in the Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia. The loss of innocent lives serves as a poignant reminder that terrorists’ evil has no moral or territorial limits. Coalition discoveries in Afghanistan and other places confirm that al Qaida actively seeks weapons of mass destruction. This network remains active and determined to conduct more attacks against the US and our allies.


At the same time, other threats to US interests have not abated. US Armed Forces remain focused on preparing for potential regional conflict. The proliferation of advanced technology, weapons and associated expertise has increased the probability that our adversaries will be capable in the future of fielding significantly more robust and lethal means to attack the US and our interests.


In December 2002, North Korea announced that it would resume its nuclear program. Iraq has used chemical and biological weapons in the past and would likely use them again in the future. Iraq is also aggressively seeking nuclear weapons. These facts create imperatives for our Nation’s Armed Forces. All the while, US Forces remain prepared to confront the consequences of factional strife in distant lands and respond to humanitarian disasters. The President’s National Security Strategy provides a new focus for our Nation’s Armed Forces. Based on detailed analysis in the most recent 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review, the Defense Department adopted a new Defense Strategy. Today, we must be ready to assure our allies, while we dissuade, deter and defeat any adversary. We possess the forces necessary to defend the United States homeland and deter forward in four critical regions. If required, we will swiftly defeat the efforts of two adversaries in an overlapping timeframe, while having the ability to “win decisively” in one theater. In addition, our forces are able to conduct a limited number of lesser contingencies, maintain a sufficient force generation capability and support a strategic reserve.


At home, the establishment of the United States Northern Command (NORTHCOM) has significantly improved the preparedness, responsiveness and integration between the US military and other federal agencies defending our homeland. NORTHCOM is an integral part of the rapidly expanding interagency network supporting Homeland Defense. Our Nation’s entire Armed Forces remain as engaged today as at any time since the Second World War. The War on Terrorism remains our primary focus. In concert with other instruments of National power, our Armed Forces are tracking down al Qaida in Afghanistan and around the world. Simultaneously, we are operating in the No-Fly Zones over Iraq, enforcing UN sanctions in the Arabian Gulf, facilitating reconstruction in Afghanistan, conducting peacekeeping operations in the Balkans, supporting our partners in South America against narcotics trafficking and terrorist cells, preserving stability in the Korean Peninsula and defending the American homeland. Clearly, the American people should know that their Armed Forces are operating at a high tempo.


As a result of this unprecedented strategic environment, I have established three priorities as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: To win the war on terrorism, to improve joint warfighting and to transform our Nation’s military to face the dangers of the 21st Century. These priorities also reflect the priorities of the Secretary of Defense. Combined with the President’s vision, the Secretary’s leadership, the support of Congress and the selfless service of our Nation’s Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, Coastguardsmen and Civilian workforce – our Nation’s Armed Forces are making progress in each of these areas. Al Qaida was not created in a single day. It formed over the course of a decade or more prior to September 11, 2001. It cannot be destroyed in a day or a year – it will require a commitment of many years. We recognize that dangerous and difficult work remains. The following highlights recent successes and describes what additional actions are required to protect our Nation in our dynamic security environment.


  • War on Terrorism

For the past 17 months, the US Armed Forces, in concert with other federal agencies and our coalition partners, have conducted a determined campaign to defeat the most potent threat to our way of life – global terrorist organizations. Operation Enduring Freedom has dealt a severe blow to the al Qaida transnational network. About 50 key al Qaida officials, operatives and logisticians have been killed or captured. Numerous other operatives have also been removed; however, al Qaida remains a formidable and adaptive peril to our nation and our partners. Our successes reflect the careful integration of all instruments of national power. This war against terrorists requires the inclusive commitment of the military, financial, economic, law enforcement and intelligence resources of our Nation. On the international level, the military support and cooperation has been remarkable. Until August of last year when we determined it was no longer required, NATO provided Airborne Early Warning aircraft to supplement our E-3 aircraft patrolling over American cities. NATO allies remain with us in Afghanistan and patrolling the oceans to interdict terrorists and their weapons or resources. More than 90 nations share our resolve and contribute daily to the goal of destroying al Qaida. As part of this effort, numerous bilateral counter-terrorist exercises and exchanges have been conducted around the world.


At the national level, the Defense Department has made numerous adjustments. The creation of the Joint Interagency Task Force for Counter-Terrorism enables the rapid flow of information and analysis from national resources to the battlefield. Likewise, Combatant Commanders established Joint Interagency Coordination Groups to share information, coordinate actions and streamline operations among military, intelligence and law enforcement agencies. At US Special Operations Command, the Counter-Terrorism Campaign Support Group combines the expertise and resources of the Departments of State, Treasury and Justice and the CIA with our Special Operations warriors at the operational level. The Counter-Terrorism Campaign Support Group fuses intelligence, interagency and military activities in a seamless organization. Current Overseas Operations


In Afghanistan, our greatest success has been to deny al Qaida an operating haven. Today, Afghanistan has the first true chance for peace in 23 years. More than 2 million Afghan people have returned home. We are in the final stages of Phase III (Decisive Operations). Phase III has severely degraded al Qaida’s operational capabilities and their ability to train new members. Their support continues to decline among the Afghan people. Pockets of Taliban and al Qaida resistance remain within Afghanistan primarily along the Pakistani border.


Nonetheless, overall conditions may permit us to soon shift to Phase IV (Stability Operations). Once the President decides to move into Phase IV, we will increase the civil and reconstruction assistance to the Afghan government. Stability operations will require a great deal of support from the international community to be successful. This past year, a key task to promote stability began with training of the Afghan National Army. The US spearheaded the development of this force with training, equipment, and force structure requirements. The Afghan National Army’s first six battalions have completed basic training at the Kabul Military Training Center. More than 1,300 troops began advanced training as of December. In February select officer training began. The French have funded the initial salaries for the recruits for all six battalions and provided half of the training. Recently trained forces are integrating with our forces throughout the countryside. To date, the international community has donated $40 million worth of equipment. Our military forces will be part of an ongoing commitment to provide equipment and expertise. The International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan continues its role mandated by the Bonn agreement and UN Security Council resolutions. Today, Germany and the Netherlands share leadership responsibilities of the International Security Assistance Force. They follow the example set by the United Kingdom and Turkey. Twenty-two nations contribute more than 4,500 troops to this vital mission.


In January 2002, United States Central Command (CENTCOM) proposed a concept of operations to disrupt terrorist operations in and around Yemen. Central to this plan, CENTCOM proposed to strengthen Yemeni Special Forces capability for counter-terrorism operations and expand intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance operations. Yemeni Special Forces have been trained on counter-terrorism tactics and procedures and are currently receiving maritime counter-terrorism training. The working relationship between the US and Yemeni Government has greatly improved as a result of this training program. CENTCOM also established Joint Task Force Horn of Africa (JTF-HOA) as part of its Theater Counter-Terrorism Campaign.


In December 2002, JTF-HOA stood up while embarked on USS Mount Whitney. JTF-HOA provides CENTCOM a regional counter-terrorism focus in East Africa and Yemen. It exercises command and control of counter-terrorism operations for this area. The JTF-HOA staff will remain embarked on USS Mount Whitney for 4 to 6 months until the infrastructure is in place ashore at Camp Lemonier, Djibouti. Meanwhile, CENTCOM and Allied Forces continue Maritime Interception Operations in the Arabian Gulf to enforce UN sanctions against Iraq.


In 2002, coalition forces diverted over 800 vessels suspected of carrying illegal Iraqi oil. This reflects a significant increase over the 115 vessels diverted in 2001. United States European Command (EUCOM) through its Special Operations Command, Europe, began the Georgia Train and Equip Program to build a Georgian capability to deal with the terrorist presence in the Pankisi Gorge. EUCOM developed a plan to train three staffs, four battalions and one Mechanized/Armor company team. EUCOM has completed training the Georgian Ministry of Defense staff, the Land Forces Command staff and the first battalion.


In December, Commander, EUCOM directed Marine Forces Europe to assume the Georgia Train and Equip Program mission, which resumed training in February. Six other allies contributed nearly $2 million in materiel reflecting the international nature of this program. In July, the President approved Expanded Maritime Interception Operations to interdict terrorists and their resources. With this order, the President authorized commanders to stop, board and search merchant ships identified to be transporting terrorists and/or terrorist-related materiel. Expanded Maritime Interception Operations are focused on EUCOM and CENTCOM’s Area of Responsibilities (AORs) while PACOM and the other Combatant Commanders are developing Expanded Maritime Interception Operations plans. Eleven nations provide forces for Maritime Interception Operations within the CENTCOM AOR. German and Spanish senior officers command parts of these operations -- reflecting the coalition commitment to the War on Terrorism. So far, EUCOM’s Maritime Interception Operations have stopped fourteen ships. NATO maritime and air forces support the Maritime Interception Operations within EUCOM’s AOR.


In Europe, we support NATO’s plan to transition Stabilization Forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina to a minimal presence and Kosovo Forces to a reduced presence by the end of 2004. In the spring of 2003, the NATO Military Committee will review the proposed force structure reductions and restructuring for Bosnia and Kosovo. Our presence in the Balkans has not only promoted peace in the region, it has also enhanced our ability to conduct counter-terrorism operations. During this past year in support of Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines, US Pacific Command (PACOM) has provided the Armed Forces of the Philippines military advice and assistance in targeting Abu Sayyaf Group terrorist activities in the Philippines. US forces could be available to provide follow-on advice and assistance if requested by the Government of Philippines, and approved by the President and the Secretary of Defense. In concert with these efforts supporting Operation Enduring Freedom, Congress has approved the Security Assistance Funding necessary to provide counter-terrorism training for the armed forces of the Philippines. Training will begin in the February/March timeframe. United States Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) continues to support counter-narcotics trafficking and counter-terrorism efforts in South America.


In accordance with new Presidential policy and expanded legislative authority, we are assisting the Colombian military in its fight against designated terrorist organizations by providing advice, training and equipment. Our current operations are built on preexisting counter-narcotics missions. US troops are currently training the Colombian military to protect critical infrastructures, such as the Cano Limon Pipeline. In addition personnel will deploy in FY03 to serve as Operations and Intelligence Planning Assistance Teams at selected units to assist the Colombian military in its fight against terrorism. This assistance will continue over the next several years. The US military presence in Colombia is limited to the troop caps established by Congress, in terms of uniformed and contract personnel. The Tri-Border Area of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay is a focal point of increased drug and arms trafficking, money laundering, document fraud and Islamic terrorist-supported activities. US and Brazilian officials estimate that between $10 – 12 billion USD/year flows through the Tri-Border Area, some of which is diverted to known terrorist groups such as Hizballah and Hamas. Commander, SOUTHCOM continues detainee operations (detention and intelligence collection missions) at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. While the Detainees are not entitled to the status of Enemy Prisoners of War, the President and the Secretary of Defense have directed that the U.S. armed forces treat them humanely and to the extent appropriate and consistent with military necessity, consistent with the principles of the Geneva Conventions. SOUTHCOM has constructed an additional 190 medium security units to augment the 816 holding units and fortified billeting structures for US military personnel assigned.


Almost 2,000 US military personnel are deployed to Guantanamo Bay in support of detainee operations. The President issued an order on November 13, 2001, authorizing use of military commissions to prosecute individuals subject to the order for offenses against the laws of war and other applicable laws. To date, no one has been made specifically subject to the order, and therefore, no one has been prosecuted by military commission. The Secretary of Defense appointed the Secretary of the Army to lead war crimes investigations. A few of those detained at Guantanamo determined to be of no intelligence or law enforcement value or threat to the US or its interests, have been released and returned to their countries of origin. We view Guantanamo Bay as a national asset that supports our work in securing intelligence vital to success in the war on terrorism and protection of our homeland. It also supports interagency and international intelligence and law enforcement efforts. Interrogations at Guantanamo Bay have resulted in intelligence of high value. Information gathered from known terrorists held at Guantanamo Bay has helped us to define and disrupt the global terrorist threat.


  • Unified Command Plan 2002

On 1 October 2002 we implemented the 2002 Unified Command Plan, as directed by the President. The 2002 Unified Command Plan, and its subsequent Change 1, created United States Northern Command (NORTHCOM), disestablished United States Space Command (SPACECOM) and combined SPACECOM’s missions and forces with United States Strategic Command (STRATCOM), thereby establishing a “new” STRATCOM. United States Northern Command and Homeland Security


NORTHCOM’s mission is to deter, prevent and defeat threats and aggression aimed at the US and its territories. When directed, NORTHCOM provides military assistance to civil authorities, including consequence management. Commander, NORTHCOM is dual-hatted as Commander, North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). NORAD has control of the Air Defense of CONUS. Land and Maritime operations are controlled by NORTHCOM. NORTHCOM stood up its combatant command staff and accepted Homeland Defense missions and tasks from United States Joint Forces Command (JFCOM) and other combatant commands. It has also developed a plan to reach its full operational capability. Currently, NORTHCOM is engaged with federal and state agencies, the National Guard and NORAD to plan and exercise a variety of homeland defense and civil support tasks. Simultaneously, NORTHCOM is cultivating closer relationships with our North American neighbors.


As part of this effort, NORTHCOM’s Standing Joint Task Force Civil Support provides command and control for DOD forces supporting the lead federal agency managing the consequences of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or high-yield explosive incidents in addition to natural disasters. As such, Joint Task Force Civil Support provides a sustained planning staff that has formed a habitual relationship with key Federal and State Agencies plus communities nationwide. NORAD’s responsibilities for air and ground early warning systems and alert fighter support in defense of CONUS, Canada and Alaska remain unchanged. In addition, NORAD is identifying the infrastructure needed for the defense of the National Capital Region. On December 9, 2002 the US and Canada agreed to create a new bi-national land, maritime, and civil support military planning group at NORAD to help examine potential responses to threats and attacks on the US or Canada. This initiative will advance our ability to defend our Nation. Last year Operation NOBLE EAGLE flew over 14,000 sorties even while our current operations overseas required key resources. These sorties represent NORAD’s contributions to Operation NOBLE EAGLE and defense of the American Homeland.


United States Strategic Command United States Strategic Command’s (STRATCOM) mission is to establish and provide full-spectrum global strike, coordinate space and information operations capabilities to meet both deterrent and decisive national security objectives. STRATCOM retains its nuclear triad of submarine, bomber and missile forces. On 10 January 2003, the President signed Change 2 to the Unified Command Plan. This latest changed assigned four emergent missions to STRATCOM and reflects the US military’s increased emphasis on a global view. These new missions include missile defense, global strike, DOD information operations and global command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance. Missile defense is an inherently multi-command and multi-regional task. STRATCOM will serve as the primary advocate in the development of missile defense operational architecture. With its global strike responsibilities, the Command will provide a core cadre to plan and execute nuclear, conventional and information operations anywhere in the world. STRATCOM serves as the DOD advocate for integrating the desired military effects of information operations. These initiatives represent a major step in transforming our military and in implementing the new strategic triad envisioned in the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review. STRATCOM will also continue the former US Space Command’s legacy of providing Space support for our Joint Team. The Global Positioning System offers an excellent example of how space systems enhance our Joint Warfighting Team. The Global Positioning System’s worldwide position, navigation and timing information give US forces an all-weather, precision engagement capability. As an example of one application, the US Army fielded a blue force tracking system – a space-based tool that gives commanders awareness of their units’ locations.


US military space superiority requires continued advances in space control and access along with the cooperation of our allies. The European Union, for example, is developing Galileo, a civil satellite navigation system that risks our enhancement to military GPS. As currently designed, the Galileo signal will operate in the same bandwidth as our GPS system’s civil and military signals. When Galileo begins operating, its signals will directly overlay the spectrum associated with our new GPS military code. Continued negotiations to resolve this political issue with the European Union is essential to ensuring our joint team maintains the advantages of GPS in combat. Concurrent with these on-going operations, the Services, Joint Staff and Combatant Commands have pursued a 15 percent major headquarters reduction. To date, DOD headquarters personnel have been reduced by more than 11 percent. Given commitments around the world today, any further reductions beyond those already taken could adversely impact our ability to meet the demands of the War on Terrorism, Homeland Security, global military presence and respond to any new threats. Nonetheless, the Service Chiefs, Combatant Commanders and I continue to explore ways to reduce and streamline headquarters functions.


  • Antiterrorism/Force Protection

Antiterrorism/Force Protection remains a top priority for all commanders. Our adversaries – unable to confront or compete with the United States militarily – have and will continue to use terrorist acts to attack US citizens, property, and interests – to include military bases and personnel. In the FY03 budget, the Antiterrorism/Force Protection portion of the Combating Terrorism budget totaled $9.3 billion. The terrorist threat environment has forced us to maintain a higher worldwide Force Protection Condition for longer periods of time. In the short term, this task is being met with an increase in manpower. For example, EUCOM is currently at Force Protection Condition Bravo. In the short-term, additional troops are required to guard US military bases throughout EUCOM’s theater. In the long-term, SECDEF directed us to pursue new technologies that will reduce the manpower footprint while improving force protection, as well as seeking host nation support for the force protection mission.


  • The Combating Terrorism Readiness Initiative

Fund helped provide immediate Antiterrorism/Force Protection off-the-shelf technology to Combatant Commanders to satisfy emergent requirements that could not wait for the normal budget process or long-term technical solutions. Last year’s funded systems included explosive detection systems that enhanced access control, intrusion detection systems that provided broader perimeter security while reducing manpower requirements and chemical/biological (Chem/Bio) detection systems to improve installation defense capabilities. The Department authorized $47 million this past year for the Combating Terrorism Readiness Initiative Fund, nearly twice the FY00 expenditure.


To support the Combatant Commanders’ Antiterrorism/Force Protection efforts, the Joint Staff Integrated Vulnerability Assessment Teams will visit 95 military installations worldwide this year. Joint Staff Integrated Vulnerability Assessment Teams assess physical security measures, infrastructure support and structural vulnerabilities, intelligence collection and dissemination capabilities and the installation’s ability to respond to terrorist incidents. Over 500,000 personnel received “General Antiterrorism Awareness” training last year. This on-line training is now also available to DOD family members. The Defense Department also finalized prescriptive antiterrorism engineering and construction standards to improve survivability of our personnel from the effects of an explosive device. In large part because the Pentagon renovation project followed design strategies based on these new antiterrorism construction standards, the damage and loss of life from the Pentagon attack was significantly reduced. US Forces’ antiterrorism capabilities are seen as a standard worldwide. NATO sought US military expertise to improve antiterrorism training for all NATO forces. As a result, last summer, NATO approved policy guidance that clarified Antiterrorism responsibilities for Non-Article 5 operations, delineated minimum unit Antiterrorism plan requirements and increased emphasis on weapons of mass destruction defense and consequence management planning. The US will assist NATO to implement this important guidance. We are working hard to expand and improve our capabilities to protect our personnel against Chem/Bio agents. DOD initiated vaccinating select segments of the force against anthrax and smallpox. Our medical treatment capabilities must expand to include improved treatment against Weapons of Mass Destruction while providing additional medical countermeasures, surveillance systems and response teams.


We improved overall Joint Force readiness by our recent procurement of improved Chem/Bio defensive protective clothing, masks and detection systems. This equipment is significantly more reliable, better at agent detection and further enhances our forces’ overall capability to operate in the Chem/Bio environment. In the area of installation protection, we have improved detection systems plus consequence management assessment and training capabilities at 23 of our overseas bases. In addition, we performed a thorough assessment of our detection and first responder capabilities at nine key CONUS installations. These lessons learned will guide development of a comprehensive plan to improve Chem/Bio defense at more than 200 bases over the next six years. Although we improved our Chem/Bio capabilities, fighting a war in this environment remains a serious challenge. Therefore, we must continue to fund research, development and acquisition projects that ensure our forces can operate successfully in this adverse environment.


  • Readiness for Future Operations

The readiness of our general-purpose forces, whether forward deployed, operating in support of contingency operations or in Homeland Defense, continues to be solid. US Forces are well trained and in general, possess the personnel, equipment and resources needed to accomplish the military objectives outlined in the Defense Strategy. In light of the current pace of operations, it is notable that active US Army divisions maintain high readiness levels. US Air Force aircraft mission capable rates improved over the past six months. US Navy forces continue to meet readiness goals for both the deployed and non-deployed segments of the force. The US Marine Corps is ready to meet the demands of current and potential operations. While ongoing global operations increased the workload on the Nation’s military focus, these forces remain prepared to accomplish their wartime tasks. Materiel readiness has improved substantially in part, due to the tremendous support of Congress. One example is munitions, where recent supplemental measures have allowed Combatant Commanders to increase stockpiles of key all-weather and advanced precision-guided munitions. These munitions enable the Joint Team to place at risk a wide array of enemy targets. Funding increases this past year dramatically increased precision-guided munitions production rates, and selected production rates should be near maximum capacity by August 2003. Continued Congressional support is critical to build munitions and materiel inventories to levels that meet warfighting requirements.


While the Force is ready, this past year significantly stressed the readiness of several critical enablers. Our intelligence forces operate under increased pressure as a result of the War on Terrorism. Key skill sets (like targeteers, linguists and police-like investigative skills) are in short supply. Recognizing this fact, our intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance forces must mature into a more adaptable and flexible contingency collection capability. Many systems were developed to meet a Cold War threat and provide excellent force-on-force collection capability. The ingenuity of our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines and Coastguardsmen has allowed many systems to perform a valuable role in the War on Terrorism. The present posture of the military intelligence forces, for the long-term War on Terrorism is improving, but many challenges remain. This global war clearly demonstrates the need for persistent long-loiter intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance platforms. Military intelligence also requires low observable unmanned aerial vehicle systems, close-access sensors and a greater emphasis on human intelligence collection. In addition, all intelligence communities must provide an information architecture that provides a “push and pull” capability for the joint warfighter, law enforcement and counter-intelligence personnel. We must shift our attitudes away from the mindset of a “need to know” to one of “need to share.” Our strategic mobility triad (airlift, sealift, and prepositioned materiel) provides us the capability to swiftly move forces around the world. The US remains the only nation who can routinely move units and materiel globally with confidence and speed. While our airlift and air refueling assets performed magnificently in support of the War on Terrorism, this high operational demand is accelerating the aging of C-5 and tanker aircraft and created unanticipated wear and tear on our C-17 fleet. As a result, strategic airlift remains one of our top priorities. The C-17 Multi-Year Procurement plus the C-5 Re-engining and Reliability Enhancement Programs are major steps to meet the minimum wartime airlift capacity of 54.5 million ton miles/day. The follow-on Multi-Year Procurement with Boeing for 60+ C-17s will bring the total C-17 fleet to 180 aircraft in 2007. As a corollary priority, replacing the 40-year-old KC-135 air refueling fleet is an essential joint warfighting requirement.


With Congressional support, our strategic sealift achieved the Mobility Requirements Study-05 goals for surge and prepositioned fleet sealift requirements. The maintenance of our organic sealift fleet remains a high priority to ensure we can deploy sufficient force to support routine and contingency operations. To support greater levels of mobilization, DOD can also access additional US commercial shipping through the Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement. This Agreement is critical to ensure that adequate sealift capacity (and associated mariners) is available to support DOD requirements during wartime. We are working closely with the Department of Transportation to ensure these requirements can be met.


Our Prepositioned Materiel reduced response time in key theaters. This critical readiness program enables our success in the War on Terrorism and other contingency operations. For intratheater mobility, the Department recognizes the Joint Venture, High-Speed Vessel as a promising delivery platform. This vessel employs off-the-shelf technology and can operate in austere locations where mature seaports do not exist. Combatant Commanders praise this vessel for rapidly and efficiently moving personnel and equipment. Future operations will also rely on strong enroute infrastructures that support strategic mobility requirements. The dynamic nature of the War on Terrorism and other potential contingencies dictates that we be prepared to establish new enroute bases to support deployments to austere locations. In addition, we must fully fund the existing enroute infrastructure to sustain its capability. Future success in operations depends upon effective training today and tomorrow. Last May, I wrote the Congress about my grave concern over the adverse impacts and unforeseen consequences that the application of various environmental laws are having on military training and testing activities and consequentially on the readiness of our Armed Forces. Last year, Congress provided temporary relief, but only for one statute. While measuring the impact of inflexible or overbroad environmental requirements is difficult, my professional assessment is that the impacts and consequently the challenge we face in providing the most effective training weapons and sensors, has grown. Enough is known right now to convince me that we need relief. We are not abandoning our outstanding stewardship over the lands entrusted to us or retreating from environmental protection requirements. We are trying to restore balance when environmental requirements adversely affect uniquely military activities necessary to prepare for combat. I ask that you carefully consider the proposed changes that the DOD brings forward and provide the tailored relief we seek. The current pace of operations and future potential operations continues to require the Services and Combatant Commanders to carefully manage assets and units that are in high demand, but in small numbers. The demand for critical capabilities (such as manned and unmanned intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance assets, special operations forces, intelligence analysts and linguists and command and control assets) increased significantly as a result of multiple contingencies. We will continue to prioritize the tasks given these critical units to preserve our surge capability for future operations.


Our number one asset remains the men and women serving in the Armed Forces. They have the educational depth, the innovative spirit and mental agility that transforms technology into an effective military force. Their service and dedication deserve our full support to seek ways to improve their quality of life. The Administration, Congress and DOD made raising their standard of living a top priority. This year's legislation provided an across-the-board military pay raise of 4.1 percent and targeted increases of up to 6.5 percent for junior personnel. This year’s out-of-pocket housing expense reduction from 11.3 percent to 7.5 percent is a sound investment, as are future targeted pay increases based on the Employment Cost Index plus one half percent. Our troops and their families greatly appreciate continued Congressional support for these initiatives, plus efforts to improve family and unaccompanied housing. Such Congressional action directly impacts recruitment, retention and family welfare. I view these all as inseparable from operational combat readiness.


No discussion of those who serve is complete without mentioning the exceptional service of our Guardsmen and Reservists. In the first 15 months of OEF, nearly 85,000 of them served on active duty. Like their active duty counterparts, their service balances their duty to the Nation and their commitment to their families. These citizen-warriors, however, must also balance an obligation to their civilian employers. These past few months demonstrated our increased reliance on our Reserve Components to defend the Nation’s coastlines, skies and heartland, as well as protect our interests worldwide. We also gained a deeper appreciation that today’s Reserve personnel have the competence, dedication and leadership that make them indistinguishable from their active-duty counterparts


  • Improving Joint Warfighting Capabilities

The US Armed Forces’ ability to conduct Joint Warfare is better today than anytime in our history, due in part to the tremendous support of Congress. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. Our Joint Team is comprised of the individual warfighting capabilities of the Services. To improve our Joint Warfighting capability, we must maximize the capabilities and effects of the separate units and weapons systems to accomplish the mission at hand – without regard to the color of the uniforms of those who employ them. This challenge demands that we integrate Service core competencies together in such a way that makes the whole greater than the sum of its parts. Our operational architectures must be inclusive and not exclusive in terms of capabilities and desired effects. We must integrate – not deconflict -- our operations.


To support these efforts, on 1 October 2002, we changed the mission and focus of JFCOM. Today, the men and women of JFCOM concentrate on improving our Joint Warfighting capability as we transform to meet the challenges of the 21st Century. In the future, they will be converting strategy and policy guidance into fielded capabilities at the operational level through the development of joint concepts and integrated architectures.


JFCOM is contributing to the efforts that develop and define the Joint Operations Concept, and the related Operational Concepts, that will link our Defense Strategy and our emerging Joint Vision with Service operational concepts. It will help senior military and civilian leaders synchronize Service modernization, guide experimentation and inform acquisition strategies that will guide materiel and non-materiel improvements for the Joint Force. In support of this effort, JFCOM conducts joint experimentation to validate the operational utility of joint concepts. The results will drive changes across all areas of doctrine, organizations, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel and facilities.


To improve Joint Warfare, we must focus on improving the accuracy and timeliness of the Commanders and Combatants’ information used to command and control the Joint Force. With shared information, Commanders can integrate discrete capabilities; without it, they must segregate operations into time and space. For these reasons, we must emphasize the Joint Operations Concept to solve the interoperability challenges of our legacy command and control, communication and computer systems and ensure future systems are “born joint.”


JFCOM is working aggressively towards our goal of seamless C4ISR interoperability by FY08. To achieve that goal, JFCOM will set the operational requirements and prioritize the integrated architectures under development for future battle management command and control systems. In addition, JFCOM will exercise oversight and directive authority of three major interoperability efforts: the Deployable Joint Command and Control system, Single Integrated Air Picture, and Family of Interoperable Operational Pictures. The Services and Defense agencies, in coordination with JFCOM, will retain acquisition authority for these and all other battle management command and control programs and initiatives.


We are convinced that the Deployable Joint Command and Control system under development by the Navy is the materiel and technological solution to provide intelligence processing, mission planning and control of combat operations for the Standing Joint Force Headquarters. The first Deployable Joint Command and Control suite is scheduled for delivery in FY05. Together with the Air Force’s Family of Interoperable Operational Pictures, the Army’s Single Integrated Air Picture, and JFCOM’s Joint Interoperability and Integration programs, this effort will allow the Joint Force to truly transform the way it plans, coordinates and executes joint operations. We need continued Congressional support for these critical battle management command and control programs. Our experiences in Afghanistan illustrated how important timely and responsive command and control was to control sea, land and air forces in areas with primitive or nonexistent communications infrastructures. To meet this challenge in the Arabian Gulf AOR, CENTCOM deployed a prototype battle management command and control system to support its Internal Look exercise in Qatar and for potential future operations. DOD will leverage the lessons learned from this prototype to help guide the development of future battle management command and control systems. We must also develop command and control systems that can rapidly deploy anywhere in the world, to support joint and coalition forces with “plug and play” ease and that are also scalable to respond to changing circumstances. Programs such as the Joint Tactical Radio System, Mobile User Objective System and the Joint Command and Control capability (the follow-on to Global Command and Control System) are systems that were truly “born joint.” We also must ensure that we have the necessary Military Satellite communications systems that can provide the high bandwidth required to support our forces in austere environments such as Afghanistan. The role of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance underscores the importance of managing and developing the radio frequency spectrum. Highly mobile, widely dispersed forces require significant radio frequency spectrum to operate effectively and efficiently. This military requirement is increasing at the same time that the private sector’s demand for spectrum is growing. While it is important to provide additional spectrum to meet growing industry requirements, we must ensure the availability of spectrum to provide future military requirements.


In today’s dynamic strategic environment, events in one area may quickly affect events in another. This reality requires a more responsive planning process to capitalize on the improved C4 networks and where deliberate- and crisis-action planning complement each other. Improvements in war planning are required to close the time gap between deliberate- and crisis-action planning. These initiatives range from changing doctrine to developing new automated planning tools for Time-Phased Force Deployment Data (TPFDD) development. The Joint Staff, in collaboration with the Combatant Commanders’ staff, is developing a single shared planning process for deliberate and crisis planning. This initiative will develop tools and processes to reduce the deliberate planning cycle, facilitate the transition to crisis planning and exploit new technology to respond to evolving world affairs. The end results will be greatly improved flexibility for the President and the Secretary of Defense.


  • Improving Joint Warfighting requires more than technical solutions.

My Exercise Program supports the Combatant Commanders’ ability to sharpen our Soldier, Sailor, Airmen, Marines and Coastguardsmen’ s warfighting edge. It enables operational commanders to better train their battle staffs and forces in joint and combined operations while evaluating their war plans. It also allows DOD to enhance and evaluate interoperability among the Services. Exercises focusing on strategic, national and theater-level joint tasks consistently challenge leaders throughout DOD, interagency and allies with timely and relevant scenarios -- including terrorism, cyber attack, continuity of government and operations. Routinely, these exercises provide access to critical bases of operation around the world as venues for practicing impending joint/combined operations. These exercises also allow the opportunity to enhance the capabilities of the military forces of allied nations and ensure their continued support in the War on Terrorism. The US military is advancing and transforming at a rate that greatly outpaces our allies. We must work hard to help them close that gap.


Since FY96, the number of joint exercises decreased from 277 to 191. This resulted from the reduction of joint exercise transportation funds to $319 million. In order to balance operational and exercise requirements, DOD limits C-17 support to 34,000 equivalent flying hours and Roll-on/Roll-off ships to 1,100 steaming days. Any further decrease in funding will force major reductions or cancellations of high-priority joint/combined exercises and have a detrimental impact on our Joint Warfighting capability.


The Defense Department will establish a Joint National Training Capability to support joint operations by leveraging live, virtual and constructive technologies. As a first step, the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness and I will identify specific capabilities for the establishment of the Joint National Training Capability by 1 October 2004. The Joint National Training Capability will then exercise DOD’s ability to execute key joint training tasks through several scheduled annual events.


We must improve our Joint Warfighting capabilities by learning from previous operations. The Combatant Commands, Services and Joint Staff continue to capture and apply lessons learned from Operation Enduring Freedom. One of the key lessons learned was the positive impact Theater Security Cooperation had on our operations in Afghanistan. It helped create the foundation that allowed our air, naval and ground forces to gain access to the region’s airspace and basing. Another valuable lesson was the tremendous force multiplier of merging special operations forces on the ground with space forces’ communications and navigation capabilities to the air and naval forces’ precision attack capabilities. In addition to meeting other objectives, Joint Professional Military Education is one means to ensure that future warfighters capitalize on the lessons of the past to improve Joint Warfighting. Joint Professional Military Education develops US military leaders capable of executing the War on Terrorism, improving Joint Warfighting and transforming the force. Currently there is an ongoing Congressionally mandated independent study of Joint Officer Management and Joint Professional Military Education. This study will provide valuable insights on ways to improve and expand joint officer development. We anticipate completion of this study in early 2003.


In concert with the independent study, the Joint Staff is also exploring ways to improve Joint Officer Management and Joint Professional Military Education. We identified requirements to provide joint distance-learning programs to our Reserve Components and to active duty Non-Commissioned Officers to improve their expertise in joint operations. In a similar fashion, I directed the National Defense University to revise the Capstone curriculum for newly selected Flag and General Officers. My goal is to ensure our new Flag and General Officers gain a better foundation of joint, interagency and multi-national operations at the operational level. I charged the Joint Staff with developing recommendations for several areas of Joint Officer Management and Joint Professional Military Education that I believe need to be revised. We need one set of effective and enforceable rules for how the Services assign and manage joint billets. We must also bring the tour length requirements and recognition of joint credit in line with current operations. The Combatant Commanders and I should be the driving force in the production of Joint Specialty Officers. Finally, my goal is to make the annual report to Congress a more meaningful set of metrics that more accurately reports each Service’s support of the joint community. We look forward to working with you and your staffs this year, to incorporate these changes along with those of the independent study. In addition, joint doctrine provides the foundation for joint education, training and exercises. We are developing Joint doctrine for Homeland Security, Civil Support, Joint Close Air Support, Joint Planning, Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and High Yield Explosives Consequence Management; and Intelligence Support to Targeting. The new Joint Doctrine Electronic Information System ensures the warfighters have the most current joint doctrine. This system also provides joint doctrine to education and training audiences. Joint doctrine continues to improve the readiness of the Joint Warfighter to operate effectively and efficiently in a complex operational environment.


  • Transformation of the US Armed Forces

As the US military meets the challenges of the 21st Century, we must transform how we organize, support and fight as joint warfighters. Transforming the Joint Force requires embracing intellectual, cultural, as well as technological, change. We are in the process of revising our Joint Vision. This new vision will provide a broad description of what our Armed Forces must and can become. From our Joint Vision and the Defense Strategy, we are crafting a Joint Operations Concept. It will link the tasks given our Armed Forces to the Joint Vision, joint operating concepts and Joint Warfighter architectures. These joint concepts and architectures will provide further guidance to each Service.


In its broadest sense, the Joint Operations Concept will describe how the Joint Force will operate, while helping transform the US Armed Forces to a capabilities-based force. The Joint Operations Concept cannot shape the future Joint Force alone. It requires experimentation and assessment to determine the value of the Service and Joint warfighting concepts in the context of future joint operations and the future environment. From these efforts, we will identify the doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel and facilities changes needed to create the future joint force. In this manner, we can scrutinize current capabilities and proposed systems to highlight gaps and identify overlapping capabilities.


Using these architectures, the Joint Requirements Oversight Council will implement methodologies to assess both legacy and proposed systems in the aggregate. As a result, the Joint Requirements Oversight Council will define and validate desired joint capabilities and derive mission area requirements. The Joint Requirements Oversight Council shall consider the full range of doctrine, organizations, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities solutions to advance joint warfighting. In this manner, the Joint Requirements Oversight Council will further reorient our force planning to a capabilities-based framework. The Joint Operations Concept will allow the Joint Requirements Oversight Council to adopt a synchronized, collaborative and integrated systems engineering approach to sizing and shaping our Forces. In support of our transformation efforts, JFCOM spearheaded the Nation’s first major joint field experiment with Millennium Challenge 02. Millennium Challenge 02 demonstrated a variety of new concepts and systems that enabled critical command and control, collaborative information sharing and time-sensitive targeting capabilities. These systems are essential to the fielding of the Standing Joint Force Headquarters. While Millennium Challenge 02 focused on materiel capabilities, it yielded insights critical for non-materiel changes in doctrine, organizations, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel and facilities.


One example was the Joint Fires Initiative, which offered an interim automated capability to manage time-sensitive target engagement. The Joint Fires Initiative enabled the Joint Task Force, Component Commanders and their staffs to use available information technology, web-based collaborative tools to accelerate the Joint Force’s ability to identify, attack and assess priority targets. It blended intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance resources, combat units and Commanders’ decision processes to permit real-time execution. A second initiative in Millennium Challenge 02 was Joint Enroute Mission Planning and Rehearsal System-Near Term. This system enables Theater and Joint Task Force Commanders to remain connected with their forward and rear headquarters when enroute to or from contingency locations. It permits a wide scale of communications and collaborative tools to prevent a “leadership blackout” during a Commander’s travel.


The Joint Fires Initiative and Joint Enroute Mission Planning and Rehearsal System-Near Term are part of fielding a broader Collaborative Information Environment. Today’s Collaborative Information Environment is powered by high-speed connectivity and real-time collaborative tools to share information in an unprecedented manner. This environment will permit Commanders to receive more accurate information faster. As such, it will be critical part for US Forces to operate faster than our adversaries. To meet this challenge, the Joint Force must have access to superior information. This requires long-term investment to meet the demands of responsive, targeted, intrusive and persistent collection. Our current operational environment and the nature of these dynamic threats demand that our Joint Force have the real-time ability to monitor, track, characterize and report on moving objects and events. We must capitalize on emerging technology such as small, expendable satellites and long-dwell UAVs. These promising platforms will enable the Joint Force to gain persistent surveillance. The information gained from these platforms must not flow into stovepipes, but must be part of a “system of systems” that blends with human and technical data from strategic, theater, tactical and commercial programs.


With this improved and more complete data, the Intelligence Community must develop tools to assist in information management that can accommodate “analytic discovery” and data visualization techniques. Our military intelligence community requires a highly skilled work force trained to mine, manipulate, integrate, and display relevant information. To effectively employ these collection opportunities, new techniques and tools must be developed.


While we are expending considerable effort to make sure we procure systems that are interoperable across the services, we must continue placing emphasis on systems that allow interoperability with our Allies. A way to do this is to allow Allies to participate in many of our procurement projects. This will have the dual advantage of helping to lower project cost to the American taxpayer and increasing interoperability with those allied forces that will accompany us into the breach. The Joint Strike Fighter reflects one success story of allied and US combined procurement. The Joint Strike Fighter set the standard for how we should approach new procurements, welcoming key Allied participation in the development and production of future systems. Such an acquisition strategy will increase interoperability, help Allied transformation and reduce direct US development costs.


Transforming military forces to meet a dynamic 21st Century security environment is not a unique American task. At the Prague summit, NATO leaders agreed to establish an Allied Command for transformation in Norfolk, Virginia. The proposed NATO Command will work with JFCOM. This close and cooperative relationship will allow the US and our NATO allies to keep abreast of advances in contemporary warfare.


Our efforts to improve our allies’ warfighting capabilities reach far beyond NATO. The Combatant Commanders and I share the Secretary of Defense’s vision of a long-term plan to balance burden sharing, leverage US technological superiority and use a proactive Theater Security Cooperation strategy to transform allied forces into lethal, offensive-minded, combined-arms forces. This initiative is as much about doctrine, warfighting mindset and organizational structure as it is about platforms and weapon systems. Theater Security Cooperation will allow the US to modify force structure and posture to optimize the mobility, lethality and interoperability of our forward forces.


  • Conclusion

With Congress’ support, this past year we have made progress in the War on Terrorism, specifically, and overall capabilities. Al Qaida and their global network were not created in a single day, but over a decade. At the same time, the Nation’s Armed Forces must be prepared for other threats to our interests. Confronting them will require determined and disciplined use of all instruments of American power. Congressional support ensures that our military forces are the most competent and capable military tools possible.


The men and women of our Armed Forces have performed in a magnificent manner this past year. They stand ready for the challenges ahead.

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Directeur de la publication : Joël-François Dumont
Comité de rédaction : Jacques de Lestapis, Hugues Dumont, François de Vries (Bruxelles), Hans-Ulrich Helfer (Suisse), Michael Hellerforth (Allemagne).
Comité militaire : VAE Guy Labouérie (†), GAA François Mermet (2S), CF Patrice Théry (Asie).