The Ongoing Transformation of the FBI
Statement of Robert S. Mueller,
III, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Before the United States
House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Science,
State, Justice and Commerce, September 14, 2005.
FBI, Washington D.C.
Good morning, Mr. Chairman, Representative Mollohan, and
Members of the Subcommittee. I am pleased to appear before you today to
update you on the ongoing transformation of the FBI. I would first like to
express my gratitude for the continued support and guidance you have
provided the FBI as we continue our efforts to ensure that we are able to
address current threats and keep America safe from those who would do us
Probably at no time in history has the FBI changed on such
a large scale as in the past four years. Today, I want to discuss these
changes in light of evolving threats and improvements in our ability to
respond to those threats, both old and new.
The FBI has always changed to meet evolving threats -- from
the "gangster era" through the Cold War. It was because crime had begun to
cross state lines that the Bureau of Investigation was first established in
1908, under then President Theodore Roosevelt.
Nearly 100 years later, criminal activity not only crosses
state lines, it traverses international boundaries with the stroke of a
computer key. Crime is more diverse than ever before. It includes terrorism,
violent gangs, illegal weapons trade, and the trafficking of human beings.
Mr. Chairman, our ability to confront and defeat these
threats depends on our ability to develop and utilize three critical
capabilities: intelligence, technology and partnerships.
For our purposes, intelligence means vital information
about those who would do us harm. The FBI has always used intelligence in
criminal and national security investigations. It is how we fought Nazi spies
during World War II, Soviet espionage during the Cold War, and La Cosa Nostra
in the eighties and nineties.
On June 28, 2005, the President issued a memorandum
acknowledging the substantial efforts the United States Department of Justice
(DOJ) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) have made in strengthening
their national security capabilities and coordinating effectively with other
elements of the Government. The President also determined that additional
action is required to meet evolving challenges to the security of the United
States. The President therefore directed the Attorney General to implement the
recommendation of the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the
United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD Commission) that the
FBI establish a "National Security Service." The President instructed the
Attorney General to combine the missions, capabilities, and resources of the
counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and intelligence elements of the FBI
under the leadership of a senior FBI official.
In implementing this directive, the FBI is committed to
fulfilling our statutory responsibilities for the conduct of national security
operations and the protection of civil liberties. We are responsible for
ensuring the timely execution of programs, policies and directives established
or developed by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). In keeping with
the high level of public trust required to operate a combined intelligence and
law enforcement agency, the FBI will carry out its mission with full respect
for the constitutional and civil rights of the American people.
The FBI's provisional plan, which reflects the guidance of
the Attorney General and is under consideration by the DNI, outlines steps the
FBI would take to implement the President's directive. The ultimate goal is to
build upon the strength of the FBI's existing counterterrorism,
counterintelligence, and intelligence capabilities by creating an integrated
service that will better contribute to the national intelligence effort in
executing the FBI's national security missions. The plan will effectively
expand efforts the FBI has undertaken since September 11, 2001, and leverage
the FBI's existing law enforcement capabilities. We are working with the DNI
in completing a Report to the President further defining the NSB.
The plan will be implemented through the National Security
Branch (NSB), which will integrate the FBI's primary national security
programs under the leadership of an Executive Assistant Director for the
National Security Branch (EAD-NSB), and through policies and initiatives
designed to enhance the capability of the entire Bureau to support its
national security missions. Last month, we announced that Gary Bald has been
selected to serve as the first EAD-NSB. Mr. Bald brings to this position a
wide range of operational and leadership experience, which he has demonstrated
in his nearly 28 years of service with the FBI. As the EAD for
Counterterrorism and Counterintelligence, Mr. Bald has had overall
responsibility for all aspects of the FBI's two highest priority investigative
programs, which, in addition to terrorism and counterintelligence, include
espionage, counter-proliferation and foreign intelligence matters. Mr. Bald's
deputy will be Philip Mudd, a highly accomplished 20-year veteran of the
Intelligence Community, who currently serves as the Deputy Director of the
CIA's Counterterrorism Center. Mr. Mudd brings to this position his extensive
expertise in intelligence operations and analysis, as well as an in-depth
knowledge of international terrorism and the Middle East.
The NSB will consist of the Counterterrorism Division (CTD),
the Counterintelligence Division (CD), and the Directorate of Intelligence
(DI). The EAD-NSB will report to the Deputy Director and will exercise my
authorities over the activities of the NSB's components.
The EAD-NSB will replace the existing positions of
Executive Assistant Director for Intelligence and Executive Assistant Director
for Counterterrorism/Counterintelligence and will have the combined authority
of these two positions.
The EAD-NSB will serve as the FBI's lead intelligence
official and will communicate with the DNI to ensure responsiveness to DNI
guidance, and to facilitate coordination with other elements of the
The NSB will be responsible for the continued development
of a specialized national security workforce through programs designed to
recruit, train, develop, and retain professionals who have the skills
necessary to the success of the FBI's national security missions. This
workforce will be developed in consultation with the DNI to ensure consistency
with established Intelligence Community workforce standards.
The NSB will have full access to information from all
counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and intelligence operations, as well as
information about all of the Bureau's sources of information. The NSB will
manage and direct field activities and hold personnel accountable through
evaluations of individual performance, the regular inspection process, and
Consistent with the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism
Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA), the FBI's Directorate of Intelligence (DI)
will continue to provide clear guidance to agents and analysts to ensure that
all investigative products are reviewed by the DI for their intelligence
value, and that national intelligence priorities promulgated by the DNI and
endorsed by the National Security Council (NSC) and Homeland Security Council
(HSC) drive collection and information sharing in every FBI division.
The NSB will enforce the implementation of standardized
intelligence processes across component divisions, consistent with DNI
guidance. The NSB also will ensure that critical enabling processes, such as
training, hiring, career development, information technology support, and
secure facilities construction, support intelligence priorities and conform to
DOJ and FBI policies and DNI standards.
The creation of a unified management structure to oversee
the FBI's national security components will ensure that NSB activities will be
coordinated with other Intelligence Community agencies under the DNI's
To achieve this level of coordination, the NSB will work
with the FBI's Chief Information Officer (CIO), the Office of the DNI Chief
Information Officer (ODNI/CIO), and the Associate Director of National
Intelligence for Science and Technology to ensure that appropriate networks
and systems are developed consistent with DNI standards. The NSB also will
expand its Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities (SCIF) and access to
the Intelligence Community's Intelink Top Secret information sharing
To further improve coordination with the DNI, I have
designated the EAD-NSB the lead FBI official responsible for coordination with
the DNI and the rest of the Intelligence Community. The EAD-NSB will ensure
appropriate FBI representation in the interagency process and participation in
Intelligence Community activities as required by the DNI.
In consultation with the DNI and the Attorney General, EAD
Bald and I will regularly examine the national intelligence priorities,
promulgated by the DNI and endorsed by the NSC and HSC, to determine whether
NSB resources are being appropriately allocated to meet U.S. national security
and law enforcement needs. The FBI, DOJ and the Office of the DNI will also
establish a process to ensure that the DNI has appropriate insight into the
performance of the NSB.
In support of the President's directive, the FBI will
continue to establish programs and practices for building a national security
workforce. The FBI's national security workforce is broadly defined to consist
of all personnel at FBI headquarters and in the field who perform the national
security missions of the FBI, including the full complement of personnel
within the CTD, CD, and DI, and personnel outside the NSB who perform
intelligence and national security-related work in support of the NSB. The FBI
will develop this workforce through programs designed to recruit, train,
develop, and retain professionals who have the skills necessary for the
success of its national security missions.
The FBI is implementing several workforce programs to build
its national security capabilities, including the Special Agent Career Path
and the Intelligence Career Service. These programs are designed to enhance
and specialize the national security workforce and to create training and
development opportunities for agents, analysts, linguists, and physical
surveillance specialists in the FBI's national security programs.
Throughout the development of the FBI's national security
workforce, the NSB will work with the DNI, including the Assistant Deputy DNI
for Training and Education and the Chief Human Resource Officer, to ensure
adherence to DNI standards.
The NSB will continually refine its recruiting standards,
consistent with Intelligence Community standards, to ensure that the workforce
has the necessary substantive expertise to meet national security needs. The
NSB will ensure that the workforce has educational and/or professional
experience in relevant regional, cultural, scientific, economic, and technical
areas as well as operational, analytic, linguistic, and scientific
The FBI's recruitment, hiring, training, and assignment of
Special Agents will promote specialization and development of counterterrorism,
counterintelligence, and intelligence expertise while providing a solid
foundation in law enforcement and constitutional protections. All Special
Agents will be trained in both intelligence and law enforcement functions.
They will also receive extensive training on upholding the Constitution and
protecting civil liberties. As the WMD Commission recognized, agents should be
able to move between the use of intelligence and law enforcement tools and to
conduct all activities consistent with the Attorney General Guidelines and
All Special Agents will continue to participate in the
FBI's basic training course of instruction at the FBI Academy in Quantico,
Virginia. The intelligence training component offered in this basic course to
all new agents will be enhanced under the guidance of the EAD-NSB consistent
with DNI standards.
Advanced training for agents in national security career
paths will cover management, targeting, asset validation, source development,
and recruitment. While the FBI develops this training in conjunction with the
DNI, it is expected that new NSB personnel will attend courses at the
Intelligence Community's other educational centers. The FBI will work with the
DNI to ensure that an appropriate provisional arrangement is made in this
regard while a more permanent program, including the allocation of sufficient
resources, is established.
In addition to advanced training, agents will participate
in other developmental
opportunities throughout their careers. Joint assignments to other
Intelligence Community agencies will be made an integral (and in many cases,
required) component of the national security career paths. Recognizing the
importance of centralized management to the FBI's national security programs,
headquarters assignments in NSB components also will be part of the career
The career path currently under development for Special
Agents contemplates four milestones. As with all agents, they will complete
new agent curriculum at the FBI Academy, Quantico, Virginia and thereby
receive a strong grounding in law enforcement training. From there, they will
build on the broad foundation of basic training and will participate in
developmental opportunities designed to build program-specific expertise.
Afterwards, agents will be assigned to a counterterrorism or
counterintelligence squad or Field Investigative Group (FIG) in one of the
larger field offices. And finally, agents will further develop specialization
and expertise in national security programs and progress as recognized leaders
in either investigative or management positions.
Consistent with the IRTPA, the FBI has developed an
Intelligence Career Service (ICS) that provides career paths for Intelligence
Analysts, Language Analysts, and Physical Surveillance Specialists. ICS
programs and policies are, and will remain, consistent with Intelligence
Community standards articulated by the DNI.
These career paths were established based on competency
models for each ICS career specialty. All members of the ICS receive a minimum
of five weeks of joint training focused on the core competencies required of
the entire ICS. This is followed immediately by specialized training for
intelligence analysts, language analysts, special surveillance personnel, and
lookouts. This initial training will be supplemented by advanced and
specialized training throughout individuals' careers and by developmental
opportunities, including details to other Intelligence Community agencies.
The new career paths allow members of the ICS to reach the
executive level through both technical and management tracks. Pursuant to the
IRTPA, to the maximum extent practicable, I will ensure that the successful
discharge of advanced training courses, and of one or more assignments to
another element of the intelligence community, is a precondition to
advancement to higher level intelligence assignments within the Bureau.
The second critical capability -- technology -- helps us
collect, analyze, and share intelligence. We recognize the need for a fully
operational modern information technology infrastructure, one that enables
effective information sharing that will close the communication gap with our
law enforcement partners and the intelligence community. Our overriding goal
is to provide the right information, to the right people, at the right time.
The FBI's commitment to delivering enhanced technology
capabilities remains resolute. Our efforts with regard to the Trilogy project
resulted in increased understanding of program management and technical
expertise. The lessons learned have better positioned us to shape the FBI's
next-generation electronic information management system. Successful
deployment of SENTINEL remains a top priority.
SENTINEL is the first step in our deployment of a Service
Oriented Architecture (SOA) which will serve as a platform for gradual
deployment of capabilities and services needed by all FBI divisions. We will
gradually roll-out key technical services, such as automated workflow, search
capabilities, records and case management, and reporting protocols, through
the SENTINEL program. The SOA approach will raise our business practices to
the next level by providing enhanced capabilities, new services, and better
efficiency, while also ensuring a smooth transition from our legacy
applications to a more state-of-the-art technical platform. The SOA will
enhance efficiency and effectiveness of many FBI programs and further support
our mission by helping manage our investigative, administrative, and
intelligence needs, while also improving ways to encourage information sharing
among our counterparts.
As you are aware, we are proceeding with the acquisition of
the capabilities to be provided by the SENTINEL program. After extensive
industry and internal reviews, the Request for Proposal was approved and
released on August 5th. We are currently awaiting proposal responses from
industry, and expect to award the contract in the next several months, pending
the completion of the reprogramming notification to Congress. SENTINEL will be
deployed in four phases using program management tools and best industry
practices to measure each stage of development for the SENTINEL system and to
minimize risk. The phased roll-out will also facilitate ease of deployment,
user transition, and training.
We will continue to work with this subcommittee and other
Congressional committees, the Administration, DOJ, DNI, DHS, GAO, NAPA, CRS
and the FBI Advisory Board to coordinate the next steps in implementing the
In addition to intelligence and technology, the third
critical element to improving our capabilities is partnerships. Partnerships
at all levels -- local, state, federal, and international -- help us share
what we know.
At the state and local level, our Joint Terrorism Task
Forces (JTTF) are the eyes and ears of communities around the country. Working
side-by-side, members from intelligence and law enforcement agencies track
down each and every counterterrorism lead, no matter how insignificant it may
seem. In the last four years, we have increased the JTTFs from 35 to 103.
In addition to the JTTFs, our Regional Computer Forensics
Labs combine partnerships and technology. These state-of-the-art regional
facilities are highly specialized laboratories that provide forensic
examinations of digital evidence. Six labs are up and running, and eight more
are in the works. In each one, law enforcement agencies from all levels of
government train, work, and share information together. In particular, they
make use of new forensics capabilities to address terrorism, cyber crime, and
identity theft, as well as other crimes.
Not only are we cooperating better at the state and local
level, we are also working more closely with our partners at the national
level. At the National Counterterrorism Center -- formerly Terrorist Threat
Integration Center (TTIC) -- federal agencies work side-by-side analyzing
terrorist threat information. The Center receives foreign intelligence
information lawfully collected by its members. This includes international
terrorism information collected by the law enforcement community.
Cooperation has improved globally as well. FBI Agents are
working with our law enforcement partners from Rome to Romania. We are
gathering intelligence in Iraq and Afghanistan. These international
partnerships are critical if we hope to be successful in the future.
I am proud of our efforts and partnership with the
Department of Defense (DoD). In an effort to support the Global War on
Terrorism and the information sharing initiatives, the FBI's Criminal Justice
Information Services (CJIS) Division, in conjunction with the DoD's Biometric
Fusion Center (BFC), has been working to share data collected by military
troops deployed internationally. This data consists of fingerprints,
photographs and biographical data of military detainees, or individuals of
interest as national security threats to the United States.
In order to ensure quality and interoperability of all fingerprint data
collected in support of the Global War on Terror, a DoD memorandum was issued
in February 2004 directing that all new DoD acquisitions of fingerprint data
collected must conform with the Electronic Fingerprint Transmission
Specification (EFTS) derived from the American National Standards Institute/National
Institute of Standards and Technology. The memorandum also advised that the
data must be collected by certified equipment that is interoperable with the
The FBI's CJIS Division and the DoD cooperatively developed
the Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS). The DoD ABIS
consolidates, formats, and exchanges data equivalent and consistent to the
FBI's current State/County/Local law enforcement model. The ABIS provides the
DoD the ability to gather, store, share, and enter the information into the
FBI's IAFIS, which allows the FBI to disseminate appropriate information to
other government and law enforcement agencies.
The DoD appointed its Biometric Fusion Center as the
channeling agency to receive data collected from various military service
branches and then forward it to the FBI via the CJIS Wide Area Network. The
ABIS contains biometric information, fingerprint images, and their related
features and may also contain additional identification data such as
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or a photograph. Engineers linked the two systems
so that DoD biometric information could be shared with local, state, and
Federal law enforcement. Future tests will explore the advantages of IAFIS
searching ABIS in order to share additional DoD information.
The FBI's growing biometric-based terrorism file is making
substantial contributions to the homeland security effort by increasing the
odds that potential terrorists will be intercepted by United States Officials.
Mr. Chairman, the following are just a few of the
unclassified examples of successes in the war against terrorism that would not
have been possible without extensive cooperation and coordination with our
· Operation Crevice was a joint US, UK, Pakistani, and
Canadian investigation of a group of individuals targeting unidentified
Western targets. Through joint investigation by intelligence and law
enforcement agencies in these countries, components for explosive devices were
recovered and numerous individuals overseas were arrested. An investigation
conducted by the FBI led to the arrest of an individual in the US who was
charged with terrorism offenses.
· Operation Rhyme was a joint US-UK investigation into a
UK-based terrorism subject and his associates. Investigation by the FBI and
our British counterparts led to the identification of several individuals in
the US who maintained contact with the main subjects of the investigation. The
main subject and two of his associates have been indicted in the US for
· The FBI's Terrorism Financing Operations Section (TFOS),
in concert with the Internal Revenue Service and the Central Intelligence
Agency, are partners with the Saudi Mabahith in the Joint Terrorism Financing
Task Force based in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This task force specializes in
facilitating counterterrorism financing investigations with leads connected to
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In conjunction with its participation on this
task force, TFOS has also aggressively pursed a rigorous, multi-phase training
program for the Saudi Mabahith officers assigned to the task force.
The Terrorist Explosive Device Analytical Center (TEDAC) is
an FBI led initiative and interagency supported program that is based in the
FBI Laboratory, Quantico, Virginia. It is committed to establishing a single
federal program responsible for the worldwide collection, complete analysis
and timely dissemination of intelligence regarding terrorist IEDs. Prior to
the TEDAC initiative, there were a number of organizations responsible for the
technical analysis of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). The aggressive use
of IED technology by the insurgents in Iraq overwhelmed these limited
resources. TEDAC fills a vital role as a clearing house and forensic evidence
collector for IED material. Other organizations will continue to provide
technical analysis and countermeasures development in coordination with TEDAC.
The TEDAC receives and exploits raw intelligence and
information, component hardware and other physical items from various members
of the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and IED community worldwide.
Functioning as the repository for all information and items received, the
TEDAC conducts a full range of forensic analysis deemed appropriate on each
item. TEDAC reports the results of these forensic analyses to the IED
community and maintains a database for all information developed. TEDAC
provides link analysis of all intelligence developed and provides devices to
members of the IED community for any further exploitation deemed necessary to
facilitate research, development and engineering imperatives. TEDAC is
committed to providing international, federal, state and local law enforcement
and bomb squads with current information relating to terrorist IEDs being used
overseas. To date, the TEDAC has received over 3,000 devices for analysis with
the majority of those devices coming from the Iraq Theater of Operations. In
addition, it has made over 350 forensic and technical associations between
Since its inception, TEDAC has received support from a wide
variety of U.S. explosives and intelligence entities in the analysis of IEDs,
including specialists from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and
Explosives, Federal Air Marshal Service, Technical Support Working Group, Navy
Research Lab, National Ground Intelligence Center, Naval EOD Technical
Division, Army Research, Development and Engineering Command, U.S. Marine
Corps IED Working Group and numerous other federal government agencies, and
components of the Department of Defense.
Today, cases with an international nexus have become the
rule rather than the exception. President Wilson could have been talking about
law enforcement today when he said, "Friendship is the only cement that will
ever hold the world together."
In this era of globalization, working side-by-side is not
just the best option, it is the only option.
Mr. Chairman, by building our intelligence capabilities,
improving our technology, and working together, we can and we will continue to
develop the capabilities we need to succeed against the threats of the future.
Thank you for your continued support and interest in the