UAVs for Environmental Research and Disaster Protection
UAS for Environmental Research and Disaster Protection
NOAA, NASA, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc. Use
Unmanned Aircraft for Environmental Research and Disaster Protection.
Sources: NOAA - US Department of Commerce. Washington
General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc., San Diego, California.
December 5, 2005.
Altair flying over city -
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
successfully completed its first series of missions using a high-altitude,
long-endurance unmanned aircraft system recently to support NOAA’s operational
and research needs. Over the course of one flight, the Altair® UAS set a number
of records, including the longest duration it has flown, the farthest distance
from take off to return to the same base, and the farthest total distance.
The flights further demonstrated that the General Atomics Aeronautical Systems,
Inc. Altair could carry an integrated sensor package up to approximately 45,000
feet altitude for an extended period to meet NOAA’s needs. These include oceanic
and atmospheric research, climate research, marine sanctuary mapping and
enforcement, nautical charting, and fisheries assessment and enforcement. Such a
capability allows NOAA to conduct missions deemed “dull, dirty and dangerous,”
those that would otherwise be too dangerous or impractical for manned flight.
Altair flying -
The missions were conducted in conjunction with NASA's Dryden Flight Research
Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., and covered a range of scientific
topics from atmospheric chemistry to biological census and coastal mapping. The
first flights began in April 2005 and the final missions were completed in
November. All flights began and ended at Gray Butte Airfield, one of two General
Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. flight operations facilities in California's
Altair flying over sand -
“With this successful demonstration, our ability to understand and predict the
world we live in is reaching new heights,” said retired Navy Vice Adm. Conrad
Lautenbacher, Ph.D., undersecretary of commerce for oceans and atmosphere and
NOAA administrator. “UASs fill in a critical gap where land- and satellite-based
observations sometimes fall short, giving us a view of the planet never before
seen. This milestone is a huge step forward for earth sciences and will greatly
help NOAA achieve its mission goals to conserve and manage coastal and marine
resources to meet our Nation’s economic, social, and environmental needs.”
The Altair is piloted from a command center at a remote site, which allows for
“dull, dirty and dangerous” missions without risk to pilots, scientists and crew.
Additionally, routine or long-duration flights are made more affordable by
eliminating the need for multiple aircraft or crews required by manned aircraft.
NOAA mounted a sophisticated instrument suite on Altair for the missions. The
scientific payload included instruments for measurements of ocean color,
atmospheric composition and temperature, and a surface imaging and surveillance
system. Composition measurements include ozone and long-lived gases such as
halocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and nitrous oxide. These are all greenhouse
gases that warm the earth by trapping solar energy in the atmosphere.
“NOAA’s scientific objectives have pushed the technology right to the edge and
the results are promising,” said Mike Aslaksen, project manager for the Altair
mission and chief of the NOAA Ocean Service Remote Sensing Division. “We’ve
flown it longer and farther than its typical missions and found great results.
UASs can take us places and gather data that has never been possible before.”
During a recent flight, Altair completed an 18.4-hour mission off the West Coast,
taking off at about 11:30 a.m. Nov. 14 and landing at 6:00 a.m. Nov. 15. The
flight objectives were to collect airborne data for approximately 20 hours with
the NOAA science and operational payload. The records for distance were broken
during this flight.
NOAA has research requirements in several areas that can be addressed by UAS
flights. For example, airborne sampling is required for air quality and ocean
studies, measuring the diurnal patterns of biologically produced gases that
impact climate change and research in the remote polar regions to address
stratospheric ozone depletion.
NOAA is congressionally mandated to map the nation's coastal boundaries. The
national shoreline provides the baseline for establishing the United States'
territorial boundaries and Exclusive Economic Zone, as well as a navigational
reference for mariners and a geographic reference for coastal managers and other
constituents. The platform is well suited to flying repetitive or dangerous
missions where pilot fatigue and/or safety are an issue, such as patrolling the
United States' 3.3-million-mile Exclusive Economic Zone for illegal fishing.
NOAA also manages more than 18,000 square miles of water and land as part of its
National Marine Sanctuary Program. Patrolling this large an area for illegal
fishing and unpermitted activities presents many challenges. A UAS platform
could provide extended operational capability allowing specialized and
dual-purpose missions. During the test flights, the
Altair used a camera system
and electro-optical infrared sensor to demonstrate how these operational needs
could be met in future UAS flights.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, an agency of the U.S.
Commerce Department, is dedicated to enhancing economic security and national
safety through the prediction and research of weather and climate-related events
and providing environmental stewardship of our nation’s coastal and marine
resources. Through the emerging Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS),
NOAA is working with its federal partners and nearly 60 countries to develop a
global Earth observation network that is as integrated as the planet it
observes, predicts and protects.
Kent Laborde, 202-482-5757
Kimberly Kasitz, Public Relations Manager, General Atomics Aeronautical
Systems, Inc. +1 (858) 455-2294