ESA Ministers Meet to Define the Role of Space in Delivering Europe's Global
ESA Ministers Meet to Define the Role of Space in Delivering Europe's Global
Ministers in charge of space activities within the now 18 ESA
Member States and Canada will meet in The Hague (the Netherlands) on 25 and 26
November to implement the European Space Policy, setting out the start of future
programmes and taking decisions on the next phases of on-going programmes.
European Space Agency PR 44-2008. November 18, 2008.
This Council Meeting at Ministerial Level will take place in an unprecedentedly
favourable environment for the European space sector:
29 Ministers of the ESA and European Union Member States, gathering in the
Space Council meetings , have given full support to the European Space
Policy (ESP) - adopted in 2007 - and established clear strategic objectives
for space, identifying priority areas that include in particular the
contribution of space to: monitoring and mitigating global change, security,
the Lisbon strategy (aimed at making the EU the most competitive economy in
the world) and space exploration.
ESA is confirmed as a leading global player and a reliable partner in
international cooperation: with the successful missions of the Columbus
laboratory to the International Space station (ISS) and the ATV Jules Verne
cargo carrier, it has become a fully-fledged partner on the ISS; moreover it
has driven forward the scientific frontier in space and also re-established
Ariane as the leader of the world-wide commercial launch market.
National programmes, in particular in Space Science and Earth Observation,
are increasingly planned in such a way as to complement ESA and maximise
benefits to Europe as a whole;
The EU, together with ESA and the Member States, has become a key player
in strengthening Europe as a space power, creating and co-funding space-based
public services such as the global positioning satellite system Galileo and
piloting the global monitoring for environment and security GMES programme to
meet the needs of European citizens.
Europe’s excellence in space, its increased recognition worldwide and the
recent successes are all the result of decisions and investments made by
European Ministers years and even decades ago. The Council at Ministerial level
in The Hague will give Ministers responsible for space activities an opportunity
to construct the future today, with renewed commitment and vision.
In expressing their support for the European Space Policy ESA’s Ministers,
together with their EU peers, have established the political agenda for space in
Europe. The ESA Council at ministerial level in The Hague will translate the
policy into concrete programmes. Ministers will establish priorities within
those programmes which are instrumental in ensuring the contribution of the
space sector to the future of Europe and will allocate resources accordingly.
Clear programmatic priorities, consistent with the strategic objectives on
the one hand, and with the longer-term vision on the other, will assist Europe
further develop the benefits of space to society and the knowledge economy,
stimulating innovation, creativity and growth;
promote the development of new products and services benefiting daily
be increasingly successful on the global market in space systems, services
meet its defence and security needs for space; and
provide continued access to space.
Programmatic activities to match the objectives
The GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) Space Component
Programme provides the initial space capacity needed to deliver effective global
monitoring of the environment. Segment 2 of the
GMES Space Component
Programme will span the period 2009-18, overlapping with the on-going
segment 1 (2006-13). It will mostly complete the development of the initial
series of dedicated satellites (the Sentinels), and will keep on providing
reliable and efficient operational access to Earth observation data from other
contributing missions needed by the user community.
payload will be embarked upon a Meteosat Third Generation satellite in geostationary orbit
Segment 1 and 2 are co-funded by ESA and the EU and serve the needs of
operational services, including Emergency Response, Land Monitoring, Marine and
Atmospheric Composition. Segment 2 covers the in-orbit validation phase (beyond
completion and launch) for Sentinel-1A, 2A and 3A and initial phases of Sentinel-5.
Segment 2 also includes the development of activities of Sentinel-1B, 2B and 3B
units up to flight readiness, the development of two Sentinel-4 instrument units
(to be carried on Meteosat Third Generation (see below), and a Sentinel-5
In the field of meteorology, the objective is to develop the technologies and
systems which will allow Eumetsat to continue and enhance the European
meteorological service, and particularly to address the next generation of
European geostationary satellite systems. Meteosat Third Generation (MTG)
will enhance the accuracy of forecasts by providing additional measurement
capability, higher resolution and more timely provision of data. The programme
will follow the precedent set by Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) development,
i.e. an ESA development programme for the initial two prototype satellites with
a fixed contribution by Eumetsat. ESA will then procure an additional four
recurrent satellites on behalf of Eumetsat. The development programme will last
from 2009 until 2020.
With the objective of sustaining and improving the competences of industry
and ESA in navigation technologies for the future evolution of the European
global navigation satellite system (GNSS) infrastructure (i.e. EGNOS and
Galileo), the European GNSS Evolution Programme (EGEP) is proposed for
extension. The proposal, covering the 2009-11 timeframe, includes (1) system
definition, preliminary design and support studies, (2) R&D in GNSS related
technology, (3) GNSS evolution test-bed and system tools and (4) accompaniment
activities. The aim of the extension of the programme is to prepare the first
evolution of EGNOS by means of pilot systems to demonstrate potential for new
services as well as to continue the improvement of Galileo-related technology in
view of future upgrades to the system.
The Space Council has highlighted the essential need to develop increased
synergies with the security and defence sector and to intensify the dialogue
with the relevant institutional actors (the European Commission, the General
Secretariat of the Council, the European Defence Agency, ESA and Member States)
and plan appropriate programmatic activities.
The objective of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) initiative is
to contribute to the protection of European space systems, in particular those
related to operational services, against space debris and solar flares (space
weather). This will help guarantee the availability of such services by
providing timely and quality information on the space environment, threats and
the sustainable exploitation of outer space surrounding Earth.
Space Situational Awareness (SSA) initiative
The programme proposal will consist of one core element covering governance,
data policy, data security, architecture and space surveillance, and three
additional optional elements: space weather (monitoring and forecasting effects
of radiation, ionospheric perturbation, geomagnetic disturbances and currents
induced in large pipeline networks, for instance) and Near Earth Objects
surveillance; bread-boarding of radar components in close coordination with the
General Support Technology Programme (GSTP), see below; and pilot data centres.
The primary objective across the range of ESA Telecommunications Programmes
is to support the technological competitiveness of European industry as well as
to undertake demonstration projects leading to operational systems in
partnership with users, operators and service providers. This is done through
the ARTES (Advanced Research in Telecommunications Systems) Programme.
The extension of the ARTES Programme will continue the support to the
European space industry through research and development of innovative satellite
communications technology, systems and applications to enable industry to meet
customer needs, including those of the public sector. ARTES 1 constitutes the
preparatory element of the Telecommunications programme. ARTES 3, 4 and ARTES 5
are designed to allow the generic development of technology, equipment and
systems for industry’s target markets and to allow updates and improvements to
existing products. The ARTES 8 extension programme proposes to extend the
capability of the large platform Alphabus and to support exploitation of
the performances of the Alphasat satellite by developing the required
user segment and upgrading the service segment. Finally the ARTES 11 extension
programme is aimed at consolidating the Small GEO satellite platform,
increasing its competitiveness by means of innovative technologies and enabling
the full commercial exploitation of the innovative payloads on board the Small
GEO satellite though development of both the ground and user segment.
Artist's impression of small geostationary
The European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) programme (ARTES 7) aims at
initiating, in partnership with a service provider/operator, operational
capabilities in geostationary orbit to provide data relay and related services
to efficiently support ESA and, possibly, third party missions. The EDRS will
replace ESA’s Artemis data relay satellite which has been operated successfully
since 2003, and will reach end-of-life during the first half of the next decade.
The programme will be implemented in a stepped approach, with the first step
being primarily focused on services to GMES and on the possibility of serving
additional commercial, institutional and security needs.
Iris Phase 2.1 (ARTES 10) will achieve the development of a modern
communication system enabling safety-of-life Air Traffic Management (ATM)
communications via satellite. This programme is configured as the ESA technical
contribution to the overall development of a new European ATM system, the
European Commission’s SESAR programme. Particular attention will be devoted to
enabling low cost and low complexity user terminals and antennas to be used by
all aircraft flying under Instrument Flight Rules. The communication standard to
be developed will allow seamless operation worldwide. The Iris programme will
also define the satellite infrastructure to be implemented for European airspace.
Building upon Iris Phase 1 (2007-08), the programme will include the development
of the new satellite communication standard, the user terminals, the ground
segment, the space segment, end-to-end satellite system integration, its testing
in pre-operational conditions and system validation. The interface with the
overall European ATM system will be defined, including safety analysis involving
the future operating entity. The pre-operational capability of the service is
being targeted for 2015.
The programme proposal for the November Ministerial Council includes the
necessary provisions to perform the industrial Phase B and the associated safety
and business case analysis. A 'checkpoint' is planned for 2011, before the go
ahead and funding of the development and validation phases.
The Integrated Applications Promotion (IAP) Programme (ARTES element
20, Phase 1 in ESA’s jargon) will foster the use of integrated space systems and
technologies (telecommunications, Earth observation, meteorology, etc.) alone or
in combination with a variety of terrestrial systems, in a wide range of
operational services for society and public policies (natural disaster
monitoring and mitigation, search and rescue). The programme is based on two
elements: Basic activities, to raise the level of awareness of the potential
users, identify potential new services and prepare new projects for
demonstration; and demonstration activities, projects that will lead to pre-operational
services. Service providers, industry and user institutions will be involved
from the outset with a view to their taking over the service when the activity
is mature enough to lead to sustainable operational services.
Outside the Telecommunication area, the fifth period of the
Support Technology Programme (GSTP 5) will start in 2009. It aims at
accommodating the objectives of the programme proposal formerly known as
NewPro. It will consist of: Element 1 – classical GSTP activities; Element 2
– development of building blocks and components to high technology readiness
level; Element 3 – for Security technologies; and Element 4 – in-orbit
demonstrations. Building blocks will be made available to users in a catalogue
of products. This is to be part of the product policy in the newly proposed
procurement policy of the Agency, aimed at reducing risks to projects and
promoting reuse. It will also strengthen European non-dependence while aiming at
breakthrough innovation and promoting technology spin-in.
The Cosmic Vision (2015-2025) plan is ESA’s mandatory Scientific Programme's
long-term plan which has as its underlying vision the search to understand the
formation and functioning of the Universe since the Big Bang and responding to
questions on the conditions for life and planetary formation. The scientific
community looks to the ESA Scientific Programme for leadership. Particularly,
ESA provides opportunities to fly the larger, more technologically challenging
missions that are not within the capabilities of single Member States. The
Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 plan will provide such opportunities.
The search to understand the formation and
functioning of the Universe
This Hubble mosaic of the galaxy NGC
7319 is a part of the so-called Stephan's Quintet. The image was taken using
Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on Dec. 30, 1998 and June 17, 1999.
Located in the constellation Pegasus, 270 million light-years from Earth, it was
discovered by Edouard M. Stephan in 1877. As the name suggests, the quintet
actually contains five galaxies and is the first compact group ever discovered.
Credits: NASA/ESA, J. English (U. of Manitoba), S. Hunsberger (PSU), Z. Levay (
STSI), S. Gallagher (PSU) and J. Charlton (PSU).
Delivering the Cosmic Vision plan as early as possible is extremely important
to the European scientific community, as well as to European industry. However,
bringing forward the plan can only happen if appropriate funding levels are
granted in the next Level of Resources (2009-13) to the Scientific
Programme (the LoR covers science and basic mandatory activities as described in
section 5.3) thus ensuring challenging technological work for European industry
and providing the European scientific community with a continuing world-class
An assessment of the financial capacity of the Member States shows that an
increase in the Level of Resources (LoR) dedicated to the Scientific Programme
of 3.5% per year is possible as a compromise between requirements of the
programme and funding capabilities of the Member States,. The first objective
must be to complete the approved missions which are currently under development
and in operation, including the BepiColombo mission to planet Mercury, in the
most cost-effective manner. The next goal is to implement the future missions -
to be decided by the Science Programme Committee (SPC) from a list which will
include Solar Orbiter - as close to the initial calendar as possible, with the
first new science mission launch by 2017 and with launches at approximately
eighteen month intervals thereafter.
In Exploration, the objectives are to make full use of the ISS for
preparing exploration and providing astronaut flight opportunities; to start the
definition of a new transportation system derived from the ATV and providing
cargo return capabilities, with a decision on a full development to be taken at
the next Council meeting at ministerial level earmarked for 2011 at the latest;
to start studies and technologies for the exploration of the Moon and to promote
exploration, in tandem with the recruitment of new astronauts. A major objective
is to become a leading participant in the robotic exploration of planet Mars,
starting with the Enhanced ExoMars mission and working towards a significant
European role in a Mars Sample Return mission.
The Enhanced ExoMars mission, which has evolved significantly from the
original scenario proposed in December 2005, is due for launch in early 2016
using a heavy lift launcher (an Ariane 5 from Kourou or a Russian Proton-M from
Baikonur) and arriving 10 months after launch. The mission is the first of ESA’s
Aurora programme and includes development of several main components: the
spacecraft composite consisting of a Carrier Module and a large Descent Module;
the Pasteur and Humboldt payloads; the Entry Descent and Landing system; a
Mobile Rover including a drill capable of drilling down to 2m in depth and
sample acquisition capability.
Discussions are under way for Russia and NASA to be major partners in this
mission: partnership with the USA could include provision of various functional
elements, such as the Pasteur Urey exobiology instrument and contributions to
other Pasteur and Humboldt instruments. Partnership with Russia would see a
linkage to their Phobos-Grunt mission to Mars’ moon Phobos, with elements such
as procurement and handling of radio-isotope heating units; scientific
cooperation on instrumentation; communications’ cross-support for Phobos-Grunt;
and the potential use of the Proton-M as launcher. All this still subject to
final confirmation at the completion of the on-going investigations with the
partners. In addition, certain simplifications of the mission will be required
to get within the subscription envelope.
The future Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation programme (also
included in the European Space Exploration Programme, Aurora) is a preparatory
programme for the development of European capabilities to enable the long-term
exploration of Mars. It includes the definition of an exploration strategy and
roadmaps, and Mars Sample Return (MSR) preparatory studies with a view to a
cooperative endeavour that could take place between 2020 and 2030 with NASA and
possibly other partners. The programme also covers intermediate missions before
MSR (such as rendezvous and capture in orbit, aero-braking, sample collection,
high mobility rovers and hard landing demonstrations), exploration technology
developments as well as awareness and education activities.
Following the periods 1 and 2 programmes which prepared the European
scientific and industrial community in Life and Physical Sciences in Space by
carrying-out preparatory experiments on non-ISS platforms, the
Programme for Life and Physical Sciences (ELIPS) Period 3 proposes extensive
and optimised use of the Columbus laboratory and of the European resources and
capabilities available on the ISS, complemented by a unique suite of autonomous
mission platforms for performing gravity or radiation-related research. The
programme will provide focused fundamental research in Life and Physical
Sciences in Space; applied research (addressing for example diagnostics and
novel treatments for age-related diseases), industry-driven R&D and technology
demonstrations in aerospace, energy, automotive and biotechnology; enabling
research for Human Exploration (crew health and exobiology research), as well as
education and outreach.
Climate change is probably the greatest challenge facing humankind this
century. ESA and its Member States are strongly committed to developing space
initiatives that can help minimise and mitigate the effects of climate change.
The ESA Climate Change Initiative aims to provide consistent long-term
global records of the ‘Essential Climate Variables’ that are required by
the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) to support the work of the
International Panel on Climate Change and the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change. This programme will focus on those climate
variables (such as greenhouse gas concentrations, ocean salinity and temperature,
sea and lake levels, sea-ice and snow extent, fire disturbance) for which ESA
satellite data sets (30 years of archives, ERS, Envisat and future Earth
Explorer and Sentinel missions) will make a major contribution to complement
that of international partner space agencies.
The Climate Change Initiative will build on Europe’s substantial expertise in
processing, generating, and exploiting global data sets. It will guarantee the
availability of this space-based information for the future, in a form readily
usable by scientific communities and government bodies. By enabling earth
observation and climate scientists in Europe to focus their collective efforts
on this critical issue during the 2009-15 timeframe, this new initiative will
pave the way for future operational support to climate policies from the GMES
The long-term preservation of data from Earth observation missions,
operated and acquired by ESA, is of paramount importance for the monitoring of
long-term global trends with regard to many environmental parameters. A
comprehensive approach to the achievement of this objective will be proposed at
the next ESA Council at Ministerial Level, planned for 2011.
Until then, and in preparation, a provisional solution is proposed for the
next three years, including the archiving of the data and the evolution of data
processing and data access systems in cooperation with national space agencies
and other data owners.
All the objectives of the European Space Policy can be achieved only if
access to space is ensured and an effective presence in space requires that
Europe is able to control, maintain and operate its own launch capability, at
minimum cost to governments, in an autonomous way. Commercial exploitation of
launchers contributes to achieving these objectives. However, as a result,
European access to space is dependent on a sustainable economic situation in the
European launchers sector.
ESA’s Launcher Programmes are aimed at maintaining guaranteed access to space
for Europe at an affordable cost through the exploitation of the full family of
launchers - Ariane, Vega and Soyuz at the Guiana Space Centre - as from 2010.
The programmes also cater for the continuous consolidation of this family of
launchers through their operating life and the preparation for their evolution
in the medium term, also aimed at decreasing the level of dependence on
non-European sources. ESA’s launcher programmes also embed provisions for the
sustained funding and availability of the Guiana Space Centre launch range in
order to maintain its quality of operations and services, as well as those for
the continued preparation of the Next Generation Launcher to become operational
once the current family of launchers and their evolutions will have reached
their operational limits (~2025).
Starting from 2010, Ariane, Soyuz and Vega launchers will be operated from
the Guiana Space Centre - Europe’s Spaceport - under a legal framework that
foresees a new agreement between ESA and the French government (French Guiana is
a French overseas department). Under this agreement France guarantees the
availability of the launch range for ESA programmes and activities as well as
for the exploitation phases of Ariane, Vega and Soyuz. The proposal for the
Agency contribution to the funding of the Guiana Space Centre and associated
services beyond 2008 covers the costs related to the services to be provided by
CNES in maintaining in permanent operational condition the Guiana Space Centre
launch range and the protective fences around the facilities and the land made
available to ESA.
The Ariane 5 Research and Technology Accompaniment Programme Extension
(ARTA 2011-13) aims to eliminate flaws and weaknesses appearing during
operational use and to improve knowledge of the functional behaviour of the
launcher in flight. The programme serves to maintain the qualification status of
the Ariane 5 launch system, thus ensuring guaranteed and independent access to
space in the heavy payload class. It is an essential continuation of the current
programme and covers sample and testing, flight analysis, flight hardware
anomalies and obsolescence and provides a contribution to the maintenance in
operational condition - the so-called MCO costs - of Ariane ground testing
facilities. Through this programme, for the period 2009-11, ESA Participating
States are also putting measures in place to guarantee the continuity of Ariane
5 production in the event that the risks associated with the worldwide
commercial market introduce future imbalances in the currently balanced
The preparatory phase of the evolution of Ariane 5 is covered in the
Ariane 5 post-ECA Programme, planned to run from 2009 until 2011. This
programme will initiate activities for the future evolution of Ariane 5 (the ECA
version being the current Ariane 5 workhorse) to bring the development of the re-ignitable
Vinci engine and of the new cryogenic upper stage to a level of technical
maturity that will allow a final decision on the configuration and full
development phase of the improved Ariane 5 version in 2011, a qualification
flight around 2016/2017 and operational service up to ~2025. The decision on the
development phase will be made on the basis of the results of the preparatory
phase, of industrial commitments for development completion and exploitation
costs, and of consolidated market needs for the period 2015-20.
Artist's impression of Vega small launcher in
The Vega Research and Technology Accompaniment Programme Extension (VERTA)
2011-12 is the continuation of the current programme (approved in 2005 for the
period 2006-10) to accompany the initial exploitation of the Vega launcher, and
its maintenance in qualified status during its operational life. The
accompaniment activities for the period 2011-12 cover: sample and testing,
flight analysis, flight hardware anomalies and obsolescence, as well as specific
development activities to support the initial launcher exploitation (flight and
ground segment), sized at an adequate level to take into account the Vega
learning phase associated with the first flights. Additionally, the programme
proposal includes limited system activities on the most promising evolutionary
configurations of the Vega launcher.
For the longer term, the proposal for the continuation of the
Launchers Preparatory Programme (step 2 of period 2 covering the period
2009-12; the programme was accepted in 2001 and Period 1 was adopted in 2003 to
cover period 2004-06) is aimed at preparing a solid basis for preserving
independent access to space, identifying the best option for responding to
future institutional needs while maintaining long-term competitiveness on the
commercial market (post-2025). The programme will make it possible to achieve a
significant step forward in technology maturation and validation through ground
and in-flight demonstrators.
The FLPP programme (step 2 of period 2) addresses selected next generation
launcher concepts and at the same time investigates new expendable launcher
concepts or evolutions of existing launchers. Works also include preparatory
activities in view of the launch of the IXV (Intermediate eXperimental
Vehicle) on board a Vega launcher in 2012, as well as ground demonstrators and
technology development and verification for promising enabling technologies.
In order to safeguard industrial capabilities in certain key areas and the
synergies with other launcher programmes (Ariane 5 and Vega evolutions),
particular emphasis will be placed on continuation of a High Thrust Engine
demonstrator, a Solid Propulsion demonstrator and Cryogenic Upper Stage
Technologies, as well as on storable propulsion with activities on the Aestus 2
The programme period 2 step 2 also covers, in a dedicated sub-envelope, re-entry
experimentation, advancing current European know-how on the integration at
system level of several re-entry technologies while taking into account multiple
future space applications.
The current objectives in the Human Spaceflight and Exploration area
are to maximise the return on European investment in the International Space
Station (ISS), in particular its innovative scientific and technological/industrial
utilisation as well as the use of the ISS as a platform to prepare future human
exploration undertakings. ESA’s Human Spaceflight programme also aims to
maintain and further enhance both the operational capabilities acquired and an
experienced European Astronaut Corps for the next European human spaceflight and
exploration programme, beyond the ISS.
The International Space Station Exploitation Programme - Period 3 is
aimed at operating, maintaining and exploiting the European elements of the ISS
and providing Europe’s contribution to common operations by delivering cargo and
services (reboost, refuelling, attitude control, replenishment of gas and
water). This programme also covers the European Astronaut Corps, for which ESA
is currently recruiting a new group of astronauts.
Use of the ISS as a platform to prepare future
Backdropped by the darkness of space, the International Space
Station is seen from Space Shuttle Discovery as the two spacecraft begin their
relative separation. Earlier the STS-124 and Expedition 17 crews concluded
almost nine days of cooperative work on board the Shuttle and Station. (11 June
2008). Credits: NASA/JSC.
The content of the ISS Exploitation Programme consists of Columbus operations,
the provision of ATV and the associated Ariane 5 launches, ATV operations,
payload operations, astronaut activities, and reimbursable services to NASA. The
programme is structured in five-year periods sliding every three years: Period 3
extends from 2008 to 2012 (Period 4, which extends from 2011-15 - the current
end of the ISS lifetime - is not part of the proposal for the 2008 Council at
ministerial level). During these two periods the ESA’s commitment is to provide
four ATVs in addition to Jules Verne, ATV 2 to 5.
The purpose of the ISS evolution programme (a 'slice' of the ISS
exploitation programme) is to develop flight hardware which will enhance ISS
capabilities and/or improve ISS operations. At the same time these systems will
allow on-orbit demonstration of capabilities needed for future long-duration
human missions. The projects considered are: an air revitalisation system, an
air quality monitoring system, a high-speed telecommunication terminal and an
external robotic-operated platform for small payloads.
The European Transportation and Human Exploration Preparatory Activities
Programme includes the initial definition phases of an ATV-based cargo
download system (Automated Reentry Vehicle – ARV) and the continuation of
cooperation with Russia. This new transportation system is planned to comprise a
service module, a reentry module and a launch escape system (for a possible
subsequent crewed version).
Studies on the definition of a Moon lander will also be pursued, along
with the development of enabling human exploration capabilities including
Moon-landing technologies, habitation and life support systems and demonstrators.
Scenario and architecture studies will be carried out to prepare future
activities as well as to support the refinement of a common European vision for
space exploration involving ESA, the EU and their respective Member States.
New space programmes are only possible thanks to specific preparatory works
and the development of enabling technologies well ahead of time.
In the area of Technology, General Support Technology Programme 5
introduced in section 3) has as its objectives to perform feasibility, pre-development
and qualification of critical technologies for future space projects, strategic
non-dependence and industrial competitiveness, as well as addressing established
and new domains (e.g. civil security and Space Situational Awareness) including
in-orbit demonstration. It is accompanied by a technology/industrial policy
promoting early technology development for use by programmes, and the concept of
product re-use to achieve economies of scale and reductions in costs.
The Mandatory Basic Activities proposal covers important basic
technology development and studies, as well as a group of activities which
provide the core for an efficient Agency.
- The General Studies Programme (GSP) is the principal tool for the
coordinated and coherent preparation of future programmes (mission assessments,
feasibility studies) within the Agency. It is proposed to extend the benefits of
the GSP by increasing the volume of General Studies to reflect a wider range of
activities in ESA (from science to applications), and to ensure the availability
of resources so as to conduct two parallel pre-definition (phase A) studies in a
systematic manner. This approach would offer a positive return on investment, in
terms of risk reduction at later stages along the development phases of a
- The basic Technology Research Programme (TRP) is an essential tool
for the Agency to develop advanced technology needed in all space sectors. The
TRP performs an enabling function, opening up the possibility of new missions,
and reducing the inherent risk of missions by demonstrating the feasibility of
technology for the envisaged application. Strong technology preparation can
mitigate delays and cost overruns. The resources available need to evolve in
line with the increasing demands on technology, in particular to cope with new
requirements for higher performance, lifetime and availability of space systems,
as well as increased demand for competitiveness and non-dependence.
- The Basic Technical Activities have benefited from efficiency gains
which have allowed the initiation of additional activities in order to improve
technical quality. This included the reinforcement of the Inspector General’s
role through the systematic implementation of Integrated Project Reviews (IPRev),
the review and deployment of the ECSS standards, the implementation of the
Lessons Learned database, and the development of systematic cooperation with
universities/research institutes through the Networking & Partnering Initiative.
These activities need further development in the future, in line with the
evolution of ESA strategy.
- The Technology Harmonisation process has been operating since 2001.
The process needs to be extended to new partners, new Member States, the
European Commission and the European Defence Agency and adapted accordingly.
- Earthnet provides the steady long-term component under which
sustainable international agreements for cooperation with other space agencies
in and outside Europe or other international partnerships like GEO, CEOS,
International Disaster Charter, standardization bodies, etc. can be accommodated.
The programme has been providing the seed funding for the later establishment of
ESA Earth Observation programmes and EC co-funding schemes.
- The Education activities planned for the next five years cover a
large number of hands-on projects in ESA Member States and European Cooperating
States, plus activities targeting primary and secondary schools.
- The Corporate and Administrative Activities primarily comprise
activities related to the preparation, initiation and execution of space
programmes, the elaboration of policies and the provision of administrative
services to Member States. A Financial Management Reform - initiated in 2006 -
is scheduled to be operational from January 2010. The Financial Reform will have
a substantial and positive impact on the Agency’s internal operations, in
particular as common tools and processes will be applied Agency-wide.
A. Level of resources for mandatory activities
In current economic conditions (e.c.) over the period
a. Scientific Programme
b. Basic activities:
-General Studies, Technology Transfer Programme,
Earthnet, Education and Corporate/Administrative activities
B. Optional programmes
in 2008 economic conditions
Ariane 5 ARTA
Ariane 5 post ECA (phase 1)
Future Launchers Prep. Prog. 2.2
GMES SC Segment 2
Meteosat 3rd Gen.
ECV-Climate Change Initiative
Human spaceflight/ Microgravity/ Human Exploration
ISS Exploitation P3
ISS ELIPS P3
Transportation & human exploration (including early activities for
Mars Robotic Exploration
Telecom and Integrated Applications
ARTES (period 3):
ARTES 1 (preparatory activities); 3-4 and 5 (technology and
applications); 8 extension (Alphabus/Alphasat), 11 extension (Small GEO)
ARTES 7 (EDRS)
ARTES 10 (Iris, phase 2.1)
ARTES 20 (IAP)
GNSS evolution extension (EGEP)
Space Situational Awareness
-Space debris, space weather, radar bread-boarding,
pilot data centres
GSTP phase 5
 The Space Council is the joint and concomitant meeting of the EU Council
and of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level. Its first meeting dates back to
2004. In May 2007, the Ministers of the Space Council, representing 29
European countries, adopted the new European Space Policy, unifying the
approach of ESA with those of the individual European Union member states.
 The given total will be decreased by 663 MEuro already subscribed in 2005
(at 2006 e.c., equivalent to 691 Meuro at 2008 e.c.)- The total “value” of the
Enhanced ExoMars mission is 1223 MEuro, with about 200 MEuro expected to be
offset by international cooperation agreements and simplification of the
mission. Subscriptions will remain open to participating Member States until