We Need to Train Like We Fight and Fight Like We Train and, Too Often, We Don’t
We Need to Train Like We Fight and Fight Like We Train and,
Too Often, We Don’t
Statement Of Maj. Gen. Gordon C. Nash,
USMC, Commander, Joint Warfighting Center And Director For Joint Training, U.S.
Joint Forces Command Before The House Armed Services Subcommittees On Readiness
Terrorism,Unconventional Threats And Capabilities On The Joint National Training
Capability, March 18, 2004.
USJFCOM. (Also see the
Transcript of the House Armed Services Committee
Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats & Capabilities and
Subcommittee on Readiness on the Joint National Training Capability, Washington
D.C., March 18, 2004).
Maj. Gen. Gordon C. Nash
Mr. Chairman, distinguished members of the committee, it is
an honor and privilege to be here representing
Commander of the US Joint Forces Command to report to you on our progress in
implementing the Joint
National Training Capability.
In the words of the secretary of defense, when he introduced
the need to transform DoD training, “Effectiveness in combat will depend heavily
on jointness, and how well the different branches of the military can
communicate and coordinate their efforts on the battlefield...achieving
jointness in wartime requires building that jointness in peacetime. We need to
train like we fight and fight like we train and, too often, we don’t.” The
concept, to train like you fight, is the very heart of the Joint National
JNTC will improve the ability of U.S. forces to fight more
effectively as a joint team by extending joint training to a much broader
audience. Joint forces win wars. In the past two decades we have progressively
developed the concepts and culture needed to conduct joint operations. We have
seen extraordinary joint successes in the field, accomplished often through ad
hoc innovations enabled by the superb tactical competence of service forces and
outstanding military leaders at all levels of command.
Military endeavors as Operation Just Cause, Operation Urgent
Fury, and Operation Desert Storm, enabled our forces to conduct significantly
more complex joint operations such as Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation
Iraqi Freedom. But over this same period of time, due in part to limited joint
operational training and exercises for our conventional forces, we have seen
gaps in our capability to put joint task forces together quickly, thus
inhibiting joint operations. The operational requirements clearly suggest the
need for more interoperability and mission coherence grounded in a comprehensive
joint training program at the tactical and operational levels. Training of
operational forces and staffs has been accomplished largely along service lines.
While the requirement for individual services to train their personnel in
service core competencies will remain, the need for a more extensive joint
training experience, with the attendant-supporting infrastructure, is clearly
evident. It is important to note that the services did a marvelous job in
launching the first wave of training transformation when they established
training capabilities like the Navy’s Top Gun, the Air Force’s Air Warrior and
Red Flag, the Marine Corps’ Combined Arms Exercise program and the Army’s Combat
Training Centers. However, since U.S. forces must be ready to fight jointly,
with little or no notice, in a complex and challenging security environment, a
second wave of training transformation, this time in joint training, is
Transformation of joint training is the engine that drives
transformation of joint warfighting capabilities. The new realities of
asymmetric military threats call for a significant change in all aspects of
military planning, organization, basing, deployment, and fighting. Planning that
once was deliberate, based on a known threat, must now be adaptive, to respond
to enemy capabilities that are highly adaptable and often unconventional.
Fighting forces must be lean and packaged to move quickly to the area of
operations and strike with the right composition of forces and firepower.
Training transformation calls for significant advancements in the joint nature
of training and a major change in the way we use our existing training
There are four pillars to effective joint training: realistic
combat training; adaptive and credible opposing forces (OPFOR); common ground
truth; and high quality feedback. JNTC will bring joint context to each pillar.
Combat training realism will be improved by analyzing each joint tactical task,
defining the conditions and measures associated with each task, coordinating
service training schedules to inject more joint operations into traditionally
service-specific events, and providing a robust, challenging opposition force.
The development of a live, virtual, constructive joint training environment will
significantly improve the depth and breadth of training. Opposing forces will be
improved and strengthened through the establishment of a standing OPFOR
headquarters and the development of doctrine, tactics, techniques and procedures
that reflect the asymmetric tactics of our enemies.
Additionally, JNTC will ensure that OPFOR low-density
high-demand assets will be more widely available for a broader range of events.
Improvements in instrumentation on service training and testing ranges and
development of new instrumentation technologies and methodologies will provide
for an expansion of the number of entities that can be used in an exercise. This
will lead to significantly greater fidelity in battlespace awareness enhancing
the commander’s ability to control his forces and the trainer’s ability to track
the action and assess the results.
Finally, by developing better tools for collecting, analyzing,
and cataloging exercise lessons learned, we will significantly improve training
feedback and enhance the commander’s ability to evaluate the readiness of his
JNTC will provide the environment, organization, processes,
and tools that will improve the ability of U.S. forces to fight effectively as a
joint and combined team. Such improvement will require a new set of capabilities
to augment our existing training structure. These new capabilities must leverage,
and be integrated with, existing service capabilities and infrastructure. These
facilities, not only represent a considerable investment, but they have
demonstrated consistently superb training to service tactical competencies. By
leveraging existing infrastructure and capturing the best of new technologies,
the JNTC envisions a networked, worldwide system of both service, joint, and
multinational facilities that will bring the benefits of a live, virtual, and
constructive training environment to the user at all echelons. The capabilities
being built into the JNTC will prove useful for training, experimentation,
concept development, testing and evaluation, rapid prototyping, and mission
JNTC is significantly more complex than simply a capability
to plan and execute joint training events. In support of the chairman’s Joint
Training System (JTS), JNTC seeks to bring greater economy and efficiency to all
facets of joint training. JNTC respects the traditional training role of the
services while providing an organizational structure and management construct
that enhances their ability to conduct training and provides the resources and
momentum necessary to ensure that service training assets can be more
effectively used for joint training tasks.
Almost two years ago in his testimony before the Senate Armed
Services Committee, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz stated “The
centerpiece of our training transformation effort will be the Joint National
Training Capability.” Since that time Joint Forces Command has made significant
progress. In October 2002, JFCOM established a JNTC Joint Management Office
(JMO) to develop the program, planning, and budgeting processes necessary to
enable the command to achieve the JNTC Initial Operating Capability (IOC) by
October 2004. The JMO, working closely with OSD, the services, US Special
Operations Command (SOCOM), and the other combatant commanders, developed and
implemented processes needed to identify training requirements, program
investment strategies, and address areas of common interest among the
The immediate concerns were to define joint context, leverage
existing service and combatant command exercise programs, and identify
technologies and capabilities that would be needed to implement the extensive,
dynamic JNTC program. In this process, we are being good stewards of the
public’s funds. We have planned and executed training events as “proofs of
concept” that the JNTC can achieve its goals. We have successfully “raised the
bar” of training in a realistic joint environment and we have begun to identify
the significant technology investments, particularly in information technology,
that will be needed to meet the needs of joint training in the future.
A JNTC ”proof of concept” event, scheduled for the summer of
2003, was significantly downscaled due to the higher priorities of combat
operations in Iraq. Conducted in June 2003, it was a
exercise based on a scenario in which a joint task force is formed to expel an
aggressor nation that had invaded its neighbor. The training focus was on joint
theater air and missile defense. In spite of its reduced scope, JNTC was
instrumental in demonstrating new capabilities in training technology in this
event. For example, joint data network air track simulation improvements were
provided and thoroughly tested to fix recurrent theater air missile defense
(TAMD) exercise simulation programs. This resulted in a more realistic air and
theater ballistic missile (TBM) scenario highlighted by the first ever
achievement of simulation correlations on TBM tracks. The improved air picture
enabled realistic TAMD and data link management training. The testing process
contributed to similar solutions for real-world systems. A second JNTC
investment, air picture analysis, resulted in improved assessment of the TAMD
joint tactical task and provided significantly improved feedback to the training
audience. Finally, JNTC funded and established a more realistic communications
network that was able to emulate real world communications. This JNTC initiative
resulted in validation of the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS)-Voice
initiative and successfully replicated tactical voice networks. These
improvements led an airborne warning and controlsSystem (AWACS) communicator to
note “voice communications were the best seen in any previous simulation-driven
While that early success was heartening, a bigger opportunity
occurred in the January 2004, Western Range Complex event with the execution of
the first in a series of four events that define the JNTC initial operating
capability. Joint close air support (JCAS) was the focus of training in this
event, with additional emphasis on two areas related to JCAS, baseline
information exchange and combat identification. All facets of JCAS were assessed
including the integration of JCAS assets into tactical planning and operational
execution; coordination of JCAS employment with the ground commander’s maneuver
plan; the effectiveness of communications links between headquarters, ground
forces, and JCAS assets; the contribution of JCAS to the synergistic effects of
fires; battle damage assessment; the ability of C2 nodes to effectively track
air and ground forces (both Red and Blue); and the quality of combat
The Western Range Complex event was conducted in California,
Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico with supporting sites in Texas, Louisiana,
Kansas, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and Virginia. It leveraged and integrated
existing Service training events including an Army National Training Center
brigade rotation at Ft. Irwin, a U.S Marine Corps Combined Arms Exercise at the
Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, Navy Strike Group
training, including a Stand-Off Land Attack Missile Exercise in the vicinity of
San Diego, and the Air Force’s Air Warrior exercise at Nellis Air Force Base.
These events were integrated with special operations forces’ training and joint
training enhancements at twelve other distributed sites.
Although the modeling and simulation confederation used in
this event was based on the confederation developed for
2002, there are few similarities between the two events. The January event
was a true training event rather than an experiment or demonstration. The event
was significant in that it achieved critical improvements in the execution of
joint training, strengthening each of the four pillars of joint national
• Realistic combat training.
- It was the first full tactical exercise of joint close air support to be
conducted with the proper joint context and assessed to defined conditions and
- It fully integrated live, virtual, and constructive simulations based on
improvements to capabilities demonstrated in Millennium Challenge 02.
- It included live and distributed virtual participation of special operations
- It featured a fully distributed training audience and training support.
• Adaptive and credible opposing force - The event employed
greatly expanded, full-spectrum opposition forces including fixed and rotary
wing threats, unmanned aerial vehicles, threat emitters, threat targets,
decoys, and live Red forces.
• Common ground truth - Increased instrumentation
successfully integrated the Western Range Complex resulting in a high-quality
common operating picture (COP) for all participants.
• High quality feedback.
- Fully manned assessment teams were assigned to each live location with
enhanced analyses conducted by Joint
Warfighting Center analysts, the
Joint Combat Identification
Evaluation Team, the Joint Interoperability Test Center, and the Joint
Close Air Support Joint Test Team.
- The event featured early integration of USJFCOM’s Interoperability
Technology Demonstration Center to assess command and control capabilities.
Technological enhancements included:
• An integrated live, virtual, constructive simulation
environment over a distributed architecture.
- Improved instrumentation with an advanced range data system (ARDS) ground
station and processing at the Marine Corps’ training facilities at Twentynine
- Live air and ground forces instrumented, tracked, and recorded with ARDS at
Twentynine Palms, then forwarded in to the COP via the event network. This
live information was successfully merged with simulations.
- Air Warrior entities simulated at Nellis AFB were tracked, recorded, and
successfully forwarded into the COP.
- National Training Center - Instrumentation System (NTC-IS) ground tracks,
via the Instrumentation Translation Module (ITM), were successfully integrated
into the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) logical range.
- Using multiple TENA compatible displays, the training audience viewed an
aggregate live picture at 29 Palms, Fort Irwin, San Diego and Nellis.
- Successfully distributed video via an exercise network.
• First use of Global Command and Control System – Army
(GCCS-A) at NTC.
• Virtual AH-64s and AC-130s were integrated into the JNTC
federation and scenario at NTC.
• A virtual Joint Surveillance and Targeting Radar System
(JSTARS) was integrated with the common ground station.
During the exercise Adm. Giambastiani asked an Army major, a
veteran of several brigade rotations and a member of the 3rd Infantry Division
in Operation Iraqi Freedom, what he thought was different about the JNTC
exercise. His answer was recognition that for the first time he was able to
train with the advanced systems and joint tactics, techniques, and procedures
that he used in war. This is a clear example of how JNTC is transforming the
joint force. But, there is much yet to do, especially in the area of the
communications infrastructure needed to support this global training network.
The January event still represents an era of “setting up and tearing down” the
training communications infrastructure. This is inefficient, expensive, and
inadequate for joint warfighter training in the future.
The JNTC is being implemented in two phases, “Initial
Operating Capability (IOC)” planned for October 2004 and “Full Operating
Capability (FOC)” scheduled for October 2009. IOC of JNTC is defined as “the
ability to conduct horizontal, vertical, and integration training events.”
Horizontal events focus at the tactical level to provide
existing service training the joint context under which they will need to
operate in time of conflict. Simply put, a horizontal event is focused on an
audience from the most junior enlisted member (E-1) all the way to (colonel or
captain) O-6 and that individual service audiences are capable of conducting
joint tactical operations with one another. There are two horizontal events
being planned in FY 04:
• The January 2004, Western Range Complex event integrated a
brigade rotation at the National Training Center, Air Warrior at Nellis AFB, a
USMC Combat Arms Exercise at 29 Palms, and a Navy Strike Group exercise in San
• An August 2004 event will be conducted, built around a
brigade rotation at the Joint Readiness Training Center and Air Warrior exercise
on the Eastern Range Complex.
Vertical training events are at the strategic/operational
level, focusing on coherent integration up and down multiple levels of command
and control to achieve the desired effects. The training audience can range from
a combatant commander’s battle staff, to a joint task force commander and staff.
Vertical events will normally reach down to the component level.
Determined Promise 04 is the FY 04 vertical training event
and will be conducted in August 2004 at sites distributed across the country. It
is a combined command post exercise and field training exercise that will train
the NORTHCOM battle staff and the Joint Task Force – Civil Support in a chemical,
biological, radiological, nuclear and enhanced conventional weapons (CBRNE)
crisis consequence management scenario. As this is a recent change to the JNTC
event lineup, due to force availability, the set of joint tactical tasks has not
been approved as of this statement.
Integration training events focus on the operational to
tactical linkages, the ability of an operational commander (and staff) to
effectively execute joint tactical operations, such as theater air missile
defense, forcible entry, etc. Integration events will enhance existing joint
exercises to address joint interoperability issues. Combined Joint Task Force
Exercise 04-2 scheduled for June 2004 will be the FY 04 integration event. It is
a US/UK bilateral exercise employing joint and combined forces in a littoral
environment with participants from Ft. Bragg, N.C.; Camp Lejeune, N.C.; Cherry
Point, N.C.; and Eglin AFB, Fla.
These events will demonstrate the ability of the JNTC to close the gaps and
eliminate the seams in joint training as well as prepare sites for
certification. In addition, they will establish a methodology for first-time
events that sets the conditions for successful execution of similar JNTC
- Implementing the Requirements Development Process –
JNTC, as an element of DoD’s Strategic Plan for Training
Transformation, is being implemented in accordance with the Training
Transformation Implementation Plan (T2 I-Plan). The T2 I-Plan provides the
overarching tasks and milestones ensuring that the development of training
requirements, program and budget planning, and program execution are
accomplished in full transparency of OSD, the services, combatant commanders,
and defense agencies. Additionally, the T2 I-Plan is the broad-based blueprint
for the JNTC program and is the master plan to which all other planning and
programming documents must respond. Required activities, programs, projects, and
tasks that OSD, the services, combatant commanders, and defense agencies must
execute are more specifically delineated in the FYDP DoD T2 program plan, and
the execution year JNTC program execution plans.
Joint Forces Command’s JNTC Joint Management Office (JMO) has
created a formal management structure that ensures open representation from OSD,
the services, combatant commanders (e.g. Special Operations Command), and
defense agencies. Using a process that is aligned with the President’s Planning,
Programming, and Budget Execution (PPBE) process and the development of the five
year program objective memorandum (POM), OSD, the services, combatant commanders,
and defense agencies submit training requirements to the JNTC JMO as the front
end of the program development effort. The execution year program guidance and
assumptions, collaboratively developed with OSD, the services, combatant
commanders, and defense agencies, provides specific investment strategies
ensuring that submitted requirements form a coordinated and integrated,
cost-effective package. The JMO management team, composed of the JMO director,
program manager, operations manager, and technical director, works closely with
representatives from OSD, the services, combatant commanders, and defense
agencies to review and prioritize the requirements. Through this effort they
ensure that the requirements fulfill the goals and objectives identified in the
T2 implementation pPlan, the current FYDP-based T2 Program Plan, the execution
year program guidance and assumptions, and specific roadmaps.
Additionally, each requirement is assessed in terms of
operational need, affordability, and technical feasibility. The program
management team works closely with OSD, the services, combatant commanders, and
defense agencies to develop trade space for priority requirements.
JNTC resources are categorized into three broad groups: JNTC
resources provided to and controlled by the services for service-specific JNTC
program obligations; JNTC resources provided to and controlled by JFCOM for JNTC
program obligations; and JNTC resources provided to and controlled by JFCOM for
distribution to the services for service-specific JNTC program obligations. This
latter category of resources allows the JNTC program manager wide latitude and
year of execution flexibility to support service requirements that are critical
for the JNTC program enabling further integration of program requirements.
Once the JMO management team has vetted the requirements, the
JNTC JMO director produces the program execution plan for the next fiscal year.
This document details all the requirements to be executed in the coming year
with complete budget data. It is given a final review by OSD, the services,
combatant commanders, and defense agencies before being submitted for approval.
The components are given the opportunity to rebut program management decisions
with the rebuttals being given careful consideration by the JNTC JMO director
and program manager, openly discussing those issues with senior service
representatives. The rirector of the JNTC (JFCOM's director of joint training)
and the Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Readiness formally approve the
program execution plan.
The processes that have been put in place to collect, merge,
and validate the joint training requirements of OSD, the services, combatant
commanders, and DoD agencies ensure a close relationship between service
training investments and the needs of the JNTC program. The linkages between the
program execution plan, roadmaps, FYDP T2 Program Plan, the T2 I-Plan and the
Strategic Plan for Training Transformation provide a high level of confidence
that the joint training program is fully integrated and training investments
lead to improved interoperability. Additionally, because it works very closely
with the services, the JNTC JMO is able to ensure that the services are
investing in systems and equipment that are fully integrated and interoperable
with the JNTC systems and equipment.
The JNTC program is designed to identify all the training
requirements of OSD, the services, combatant commanders, and DoD agencies; find
commonalities; eliminate redundancies; and identify the most cost effective
solutions. While the JNTC budget targets are established through OSD, the final
budget is a dynamic document, sufficiently flexible to accommodate changes in
the program scope. The FY 2004 JNTC budget, both services and USJFCOM, including
all appropriations, was set at $135.7 million. In September 2003 Congress placed
a $21.7 million mark against the USJFCOM and U.S. Navy portions of JNTC
operations and maintenance funding. The program has been restructured as follows:
• Communications and Infrastructure ($6.9 million)
- Eliminates installation of permanent communications infrastructure at 10 of
30 planned sites
- Eliminates West Coast system control
- Reduces Navy’s instrumentation and infrastructure investments
- Risk: Reduction in infrastructure will result in reliance on legacy systems
for site connectivity and bow wave cost of installations to FY 05. This will
reduce JNTC’s ability to satisfy training throughput targets in FY 05 and
• Joint Training Support ($7.9 million)
- Results in limited implementation of capabilities improvement initiative
teams and investigation of improved capabilities.
- Reduces the ability to fully populate a capabilities database with lessons
learned, observations, and findings associated with joint training and joint
operations including OIF and OEF.
- Impacts analysis of joint tactical tasks and joint doctrine planning
coordination for FY 04 events.
- Risk: This decreases analysis and preparation of FY 04 events.
• Opposition Forces ($5.6 million)
- Reduces OPFOR staffing and limited OPFOR investments
- Risk: This delays implementation of an OPFOR HQ staff and decreases the
ability to fund service OPFOR needs in horizontal, vertical, and integration
• Joint Command and Control ($0.30 million)
- Delays implementing a permanent joint command and control system.
- Risk: This places FY 05 throughput expectations at risk.
• Joint Management Office ($1 million)
- Delays implementing a fully staffed JMO and bow waves hiring into FY 05.
- Risk: This places FY 05 program management at risk.
While we do not anticipate these cuts will prevent JNTC
reaching IOC by October 2004, the remaining events scheduled will see some
reduction in scope. The result is that FY 05 will still be spent focusing more
on learning about JTNC and less about getting on with training. Additionally,
planning for FY 05 events and our ability to adequately begin FY 05 budget
development and POM 06 planning are impacted.
As part of the implementation plan, operational, system, and
technical architectures are being developed to evolve the JNTC from its present
capabilities, as well as to establish standards to ensure interoperability with
legacy and future systems. Technical requirements for the JNTC are being derived
from operational requirements and from current DoD operational and technical
guidelines, policies, and standards. The enterprise architecture for the JNTC
will be achieved: (1) by establishing a long-term “to be” architecture that can
evolve with changing technology and requirements, (2) by initiating a
small-scale prototype, and (3) by growing and evolving toward the “to be”
architecture in 2004-2009.
To define, build, implement, and maintain the architectures
that support JNTC, a well-structured systems engineering and configuration
management process must be created and managed. The JNTC architectures will be
composed of models and simulations, stimulators, communications infrastructure,
command-and-control systems, range instrumentation systems, and emerging
training technology systems. Research, design, development, integration, test
and operation of the technical infrastructure will be accomplished through the
technical management of various activities within U.S. Joint Forces Command, the
services, and contractor support organizations.
A technical implementation process is being used to develop
and deploy JNTC technical capabilities. The process will enable:
• Clear traceability from requirements to deployed
• Configuration management of requirements and system design
• A system architecture approach to move from requirements to design
• Delineation of responsibilities within a systems engineering cycle
• Identification of documentation and product deliverable requirements
• Consistent product development and integration approach across disparate and
distributed services, sites, and products
• Managed sequencing, synchronization, and insertion of JNTC capabilities into
An incremental development process is being used to release
JNTC capabilities. JNTC technology and capability releases will be synchronized
with JNTC requirements and program considerations. Joint events provide
opportunities to demonstrate, test, and use new capabilities as part of the JNTC.
JNTC will introduce technology improvements in seven primary
• Live, virtual, constructive simulations
• Opposition forces
• Web based technologies
• Standards and common architectures
• Selection and certification of JNTC sites
JFCOM is developing the Joint Training and Experimentation
Network (JTEN) as the communications network for JNTC. The JTEN is a persistent,
rapidly re-configurable network connecting sites that are essential to the
success of joint training. The network supports stand-alone events, joint
training exercises, exercise preparation and rehearsal, experimentation,
evaluation of advanced training technologies, rapid prototyping, and evaluation
of new warfighting concepts. The network permits community of interest networks
and virtual data connections to be rapidly established within the overall
The JTEN provides secure data transport and, when mature,
will implement state of the art multi-level security (MLS). The network will
encompass both interagency and coalition connectivity. At maturity, the network
architecture will include provisions for “edge-to-edge” network monitoring and
operational control from a network operation and security center (NOSC).
Engineering control will normally be accomplished from a system control center (SYSCON).
Both facilities are being developed at USJFCOM. The system will include
capabilities to collect and analyze network performance and utilization data.
The JTEN is a classified network which will initially operate at U.S. system
high secret. Full implementation of the JTEN will be accomplished using a phased
The success of the JNTC depends upon a high bandwidth network
infrastructure that links service training ranges and command headquarters,
combatant commands, agencies, multinational training sites, RDT&E facilities,
and centers of excellence worldwide. DoD and the services have a large number of
dedicated wide area networks (WANs) that can be leveraged to form the JTEN
global WAN. Examples include the Defense Research and Engineering Network (DREN),
Defense Information System Network Asynchronous Transfer Mode Services (DATMS),
Defense Information System Network - Leading Edge Services (DISN-LES), and the
Navy’s Distributed Engineering Plan (DEP). In addition to investigating these
opportunities, USJFCOM has been working closely with the Defense Information
Systems Agency (DISA) on the potential use of the Global Information Grid
Bandwidth Expansion (GIG-BE) program that is being developed to provide global
C2 connectivity for selected joint, service, and agency headquarters. Leveraging
the capabilities of other DoD enterprises is a “bottom-up” approach to
developing a persistent network. However, with the unique technical,
administrative, and policy challenges presented by each of the potential network
partners, JNTC will also seek non-traditional networking solutions, establishing
portals between key networks at national network interface points, and fostering
cooperation among agencies order to create the most cost effective and
technically capable network.
JNTC is playing a key role in upgrading instrumentation
systems employed on the many service ranges used for test and training
throughout the country. These upgrades, employing a consistent set of standards
and protocols, are ensuring a level of service interoperability never before
seen. Additionally, through the investment incentive offered by the JNTC Joint
Management Office, modernization of service-centric range instrumentation and
telemetry systems is moving forward at an accelerated pace. Modern
instrumentation systems will comply with the Test and Training Enabling
Architecture (TENA), an architecture and interoperability standard that shares
information among instrumentation systems, simulations, and real-world
An important aspect of the JNTC is the implementation of a
live, virtual, constructive (LVC) training environment able to support globally
distributed training events. LVC is defined as:
• Live – Real people, real equipment
• Virtual – Human-in-the-loop, using simulators, integrated
into the training event
• Constructive – Simulated forces generated to enhance
There are two aspects to the LVC capability. First is an
operational implementation. The second is a test bed environment that can be
used to investigate, in a laboratory setting, new ideas in training technologies
and new simulation tools. The development of the LVC simulation capability
complements current investments and investigations into modeling and simulation
tools for training including the work of the services and joint simulation
efforts such as development of the Joint Federated Object Model, and will
ultimately incorporate the outcomes of the training capabilities analysis of
There is also a lot of work being done to transfer the best
capabilities of the Joint Simulation System (JSIMS). First, the Software Support
Facility, established by the Joint Warfighting Center as directed by the
December 2002 Program Decision Memorandum and, second, a JSIMS validation and
verification being conducted by U.S. Joint Forces Command. The JSIMS Software
Support Facility (SSF), based in Orlando, Fla., is executing its assignment to
maintain the JSIMS software pending initiation of a follow-on program.
Operational on Oct. 1, 2003, JWFC’s SSF operations have supported the Training
Capabilities AoA with analysis, lessons learned, and briefings and
demonstrations. It has supported JSIMS validation activities with event
planning, associated software corrections, and support, and provided onsite
personnel to participate in all related activities. Finally, the JWFC SSF has
maintained the JSIMS software pending completion of the directed AoA and review
by the Congress. In the five months since it was established, the SSF has
delivered two separate patches and two complete JSIMS version updates that have
corrected nearly 300 software problems. Additional improvements are planned for
June and September 2004.
The independent U.S. Joint Forces Command JSIMS validation
and verification, directed by Congress, is evaluating and identifying simulation
capabilities that can be transferred and implemented as part of the JNTC. These
capabilities will be assessed by the JNTC Advanced Training Technology (ATT)
group to see if they can satisfy JNTC challenges and shortfalls. Capabilities
deemed promising and requiring refinement and stability enhancements will be
integrated into the JNTC ATT Laboratory (JATTL) environment for test, evaluation,
and certification. When the JSIMS technology is mature and ready for use in a
training event it will be formally integrated into the JNTC toolkit and readied
Web based technologies are being used in several ways. As a
program management tool, the JNTC web site is being modified to allow our
partners to submit training requirements using an on-line application. This will
greatly simplify the requirements collection process. US Joint Forces Command’s
Joint Digital Library System (JDLS) is being employed as a document management
and storage system for the JNTC. Web-accessible, this tool enables JNTC
personnel to access information and conduct business from remote locations. The
JDLS includes task management tools and “chat-room-like” collaboration tools.
Finally, JNTC is developing a Collaborative Information Environment (CIE) that
will provide wide-ranging support to the JNTC program. CIE will support planning
and execution of JNTC training events. It will be employed by the program
managers in the programming and budget management processes. The CIE will be
used to create and maintain technical integration databases that will enable the
technical process action teams to more effectively analyze technical gaps and
seams in training capabilities. Finally, the CIE will improve the effectiveness
and efficiency of training through the adoption of automated scheduling tools.
Web-based technologies are also being used to investigate and
develop advanced concepts in joint training. For example, a web based repository
browser is being developed to hold all object model specification requirements
for the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA). This repository acts as
the access mechanism to build an instance of a TENA event. In addition,
collaborative web based tools are enabling system engineers to coordinate
development of the Rapid Distributed Database Development (RD3) capability and
Joint Federated Object Model (JFOM) integration. The RD3 design concept will
leverage web-based technologies to facilitate correlation of data among modeling
and simulation dataset production cells in DoD. Current research in extensible
modeling and simulation framework is investigating extensible mark up
technologies to enhance C4I in simulation systems interfaces. Computer generated
forces that are used to build the JNTC federation exchange information through
browser technologies during events, which aids the after action review (AAR)
process. An organic Blue Force Tracking architecture will be used to track live
forces as part of CJTFEX 04-02. This will allow for a data collection process
over an internet protocol framework. The feed will provide an interactive
display capability, which when networked will allow collaborative planning,
preview, and rehearsal activities between tactical and command activities while
other leadership or training audiences can have a viewing portal to conduct
JNTC standards will be drawn primarily from those defined in
the Joint Technical Architecture (JTA) that mandates the minimum set of
technical standards for DoD systems that produce, use, or exchange information.
JNTC standards will extend JTA guidance and establish additional standards to
meet specific joint training requirements. These JNTC-specific standards will
build upon, but not conflict with those standards outlined in the JTA.
The overriding criterion for selection of JNTC standards is
that they must be critical to joint training interoperability. Using the JTA
standards as a starting point, JNTC standards will be based primarily on
commercial open system technologies. They must also be technically mature,
publicly available, technically implementable, and consistent with law,
regulation and policy.
We face many challenges in adopting and fielding systems that
comply with the new, emerging standards. However, to build the most integrated
and capable joint force possible, JNTC will need to establish standards that
best support joint training. Where a legacy standard supports effective joint
training, it will be maintained. Where legacy standards hold back the creation
of a truly integrated joint training environment new standards will be adopted.
In some cases, the services will need to use systems based on legacy standards
for some time into the future. In these cases, JNTC will use interfaces and
gateways between legacy systems and systems based on JNTC standards.
Configuration control of JNTC standards will be critical to
maintaining their currency and relevancy. JNTC standards will be
configuration-managed by the JNTC JMO, under the direction of the JMO technical
director. The technical director will chair a standards review group consisting
of the JMO technical management group leadership, representatives from the JMO
program management and operations management groups, and service and DoD agency
representatives. The standards review group will manage the review and selection
of new standards based on JTA and commercial standards developments, input from
services and agencies, as well as feedback from JNTC training events.
JNTC sites are selected in two ways. The first is when a
service, combatant commander, or defense agency recommends a site be designated
as a JNTC site. These sites will be regular participants in joint events. The
second is when the Joint Management Office believes that a particular site has
the requisite tools and capabilities to materially contribute to a joint event.
In this case, the site will be included (with service, joint or agency
concurrence) into the JNTC infrastructure. To be nominated, a site must possess
one or more of the following characteristics or capabilities:
• Capability to provide LVC data to stimulate the C2
devices during a joint event. This must be an established resident capability.
• Possess a C2 function, an education capability, and/or a
technical center of excellence that clearly contribute to the JNTC environment
Site certification is focused on five key areas:
• Communications systems and supporting networks;
• Live, virtual, and constructive simulations;
• Instrumentation and data collection;
• OPFOR technologies; and
• Information management/knowledge management.
The certification process will employ JTA and TENA. It will
provide a determination that sites and systems are compliant with specified
architectures, configurations, and standards required to create a realistic
environment. As a direct result of certification, the joint interoperability of
sites, systems, and distributive networks will continually improve.
Certification will assist the services in planning investments in training
systems and infrastructure. Assurance of continued ability to meet certification
criteria will be achieved through a program of periodic re-verifications.
During Operation Iraqi Freedom, for the first time, DoD
instituted a dynamic lessons learned process at the operational level of war and
deployed a team for the express purpose of gathering joint operational insights
on a comprehensive scale. The significance of what we saw was that our
commanders realized that the key to harnessing the full power of jointness
begins at the operational level of command and links to strategic planning and
tactical execution. It is at that level—the level of the combatant commander,
the joint task force commander and the joint air, land and sea component
commander, where the real work of seamlessly integrating service capabilities
into a coherently joint and combined force takes place. We saw that the ability
to plan and adapt to changing circumstances and fleeting opportunities is the
difference between success and failure in the modern battlespace. In total, what
these lessons learned indicate is that our traditional military planning
paradigm and perhaps our entire approach to warfare is shifting. The main
change, from our perspective, is the shift from deconflicting service-centric
forces designed to achieve victories of attrition to integrating a joint and
combined force that can enter the battlespace quickly and conduct decisive
operations with both operational and strategic effects. JNTC will serve as the
venue by which we can integrate these lessons learned and, with advances in
technologies, coupled with innovative operational warfighting concepts, build a
new joint culture, enabling a new level of coherent military operations that we
have never been able to achieve before.
Thank you for the opportunity to be here today to address our
evolving capabilities in joint training and for your continued support to our
soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines, who daily go in harm's way in support of